The Deputy Minister and Department presented the 2012/13 Annual Report of the Department of Social Development (DSD). The Minister was pleased to announce that the DSD had achieved a clean financial audit, and believed that the Department had impacted positively upon the lives of South Africans, including having greater interaction and public participation which brought it closer to those on the ground. Both the Minister and officials noted that because the Annual Report was compiled in line with strict formatting requirements of the Auditor-General, not all the work that the DS had done was immediately apparent, and even the percentage of targets achieved was perhaps slightly misleading because it did not display exactly what had been done. DSD worked with several other oragnisations and did not always have control over how their work impacted on its own. Where there had been challenges identified by the Auditor-General, they were being addressed. An assessment of the performance in each of the five programmes of the Department was given, comparing targets to achievements. For very many areas, there was an indication that the targets were substantially over-achieved, but the final analysis indicated that DSD achieved 61% of the targets, partially achieved 29 % were partially achieved and did not achieve 10% at all. Various external challenges were noted, and it was said that lack of internal capacity was hampering the establishment of an Inspectorate for Social Security. Extended consultation processes had delayed the policy on retirement reform, the policy on social service practitioners, and the White Paper on families. The total budget allocation to the DSD during this financial year was R112 143 552, of which 99.08% was spent. Overall, there was under-spending in five programmes, with spending of between 95.7% and 99.78% being spent. In many cases, delays in the finalisation of projects, vacancies or non-implementation of projects were the cause.
Members were pleased with the clean financial audit but expressed their concern about the performance figures, and said that the wide divergence seemed to indicate, firstly, that DSD was perhaps not setting its targets properly, and secondly questioned why that there was inconsistent performance, with some matters being achieved and others not. They wondered why DSD met only 61% of targets but spent 99% of budget and wondered why there were more beneficiaries of social grants, yet under-spending, and also asked why two million children were still not covered. Members questioned the anti-substance Abuse campaign, asking in particular what was happening in Gauteng, what was the situation with registering NGOs and faith-base organisations to deal with the issues, and commenting that due to DSD efforts, centres in KwaZulu Natal were operating well. Members questioned if the jobs under the Expanded Public Works Programme provided permanent employment, and whether there was a special focus. Several Members asked about the targets for screening employees working with children and the entry of names on to the Child Protection Register and questioned also why there was a discrepancy between the printed Annual Report and the slide presentation. Members appreciated the direct interventions and communication of the Minister with the people in Eastern Cape, but pointed out that there were a number of serious issues that needed to be urgently addressed. Members called for clarity on allocations to Soul City and Walvis Bay, the funding under the Criminal Asset Recovery Account and the need to improve the systems of internal controls in the National Development Agency. The Chairperson reminded the Department to attend in time to the appointment of a new audit committee, and asked the Director General to write a report setting out how the DSD would be addressing the concerns raised.
Department of Social Development 2012/13 Annual Report briefing
Ms Bongi Ntuli, Deputy Minister of Social Development, greeted the Committee and observers in all eleven official languages. She explained that in this year the Department of Social Development (DSD or the Department) had been given a clean audit by the Auditor-General (AG). This was in line with the DSD’s vision for a caring and integrated system of social development services that facilitated human development and improved the quality of life. Much was achieved during the 2012/2013 financial year reflecting the commitment and determination of the DSD to impact positively upon society. The DSD had greater interaction with community through public participation programmes. The DSD had “listened first hand to the cries of the people”.
She stressed that the presentation and Annual Report had been formatted according to the requirements of the AG. For this reason, it may not reflect exactly what the real impact of the work was that was done, but the officials would endeavour to give a detailed idea of the work that the DSD accomplished on the ground.
She indicated that the DSD was doing work both on its own initiative and in combination with other organisations, such as the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA). This included promoting Early Childhood Development (ECD) for Human capital and decreasing levels of generational poverty, running awareness campaigns, building capacity of non-profit organisations, transforming welfare services funding, and holding national dialogues over the air. The DSD continued to extend its services to the youth. Any challenges noted by the Auditor-General had been addressed by the DSD.
Mr Coceko Pakade, Director-General, DSD, explained that the DSD was going through changes in personnel structure, and some officials who recently became part of the Department were attending the meeting to understand the core accountability responsibility of the DSD to Parliament, and responsibilities and expectations at a political level. DSD had managed to meet the statutory requirements for tabling the 2012/13 Annual Report to the AG and Parliament, and confirmed that and the AG was happy with their financial information.
Mr Thabani Buthelezi, Head: Monitoring and Evaluations, DSD, gave a contextual analysis, explaining that the Social Development sector delivered its services in areas with high levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality. DSD worked with other institutions within and outside government, including the Departments of Basic Education, Labour, Justice, Health, and Rural Development. Areas of collaboration included projects on issues affecting children, HIV/AIDS, Older Persons, Victim Empowerment, Youth and Social Security. Because of this collaboration, the Department could only meet some of its targets if the other institutions delivered on their commitments as well. He further explained that sometimes it was necessary for the DSD to defer implementation of some targets in light of more urgent priorities.
He reported on the annual achievements and performance according to the 5 programmes of the Department. Programme 1 related to administration.
In Programme 2: Social Assistance, the targets, in relation to social security, were to extend the child support grant for the age group 0 to 4 year olds to 66%. The DSD managed to increase it to 65%. The target was to increase total number of grant beneficiary coverage to 15.7 million, and DSD managed to increase this to 16.1 million. The target to increase old age grant beneficiary coverage to 2 828 223 was also exceeded, with the total number reached being at 2 873 197. The DSD aimed to increase the Child Support Grant beneficiary coverage to 11 491 702. The total number of Child Support beneficiaries was currently slighter under, at 11 341 988.
Programme 3 dealt with Social Security Policy and Administration: Mr Buthelezi assured the Committee that all appeals would be adjudicated upon by the end of the year.
Programme 4 related to Welfare Services Policy Development and Implementation. Under Service Standards and Service provider Management Support, the target was to award 798 scholarships to social work students (raising the total to 4 750). 2 037 new scholarships were awarded for the 2012 academic year, and the number had now increased to 6 339, including the continuing students. There were therefore three times more scholarships for social work students than originally targeted. The Department achieved this because there was surplus money available from the previous year.
In relation to the target to facilitate approval of policy on Social Service Professions and Occupations, the Department reported back that the Policy on Social Service Practitioners had been finalised but not yet approved. For Older Persons, the target was to register 90 community based care and support services to older persons, and DSD had managed to register 140. DSD had a target to increase the numbers of older people benefiting from community-based care and support services to 1 450, but the DSD managed to reach 35 197 persons. The DSD foot print had increased, especially in rural areas.
For People with Disabilities, the target was to approve policy on Social Development Services to people with disabilities by August 2013. The policy had been approved and thus the target was achieved.
Mr Buthelezi set out the targets for children. The target was to increase the number of children accessing Early Childhood Development (ECD) programmes by 10%, but DSD managed to achieve a 15% increase. On the target to increase registered partial care facilities by 10%, the DSD managed to achieve a 5% increase. On the target to conduct a comprehensive audit of 5 487 ECD centres in all provinces, 6 216 ECD centres were audited in all provinces. The DSD aimed to increase the number of children accessing adoption services by 5%, but actually achieved a 68% increase. On the target to increase number of children in foster care by 10%, the number actually increased by 31%. On the target to increase number of children accessing drop-in centres by 15%, the actual number increased by 450%. On the target to increase the number of children accessing Child and Youth Community Centres by 10%, DSD achieved a 123% increase. On the target to screen 4 000 employees working with children against the Child Protection Register (Part B), DSD had managed to screen 32 935 employees.
In relation to Families, DSD had a target to build capacity for implementing the integrated parenting framework in all provinces. Capacity building was actually conducted in Limpopo, Eastern Cape, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape and North West. The other four provinces had been covered already during the last financial year. The draft White Paper on Families was finalised and was presented to Cabinet on May 2013. DSD had a goal to implement research recommendations on the effectiveness of services to families, and established the Concept Paper on Family Preservation Services as part of the implementation process.
Under Social Crime Prevention, the DSD aimed to train practitioners in the Integrated Social Crime Prevention Strategy, on accreditation of diversion services, and minimum norms and standards. The DSD trained 223 practitioners and service providers on the prevention strategy, 146 on accreditation of diversion services, and training on minimum norms and standards was also conducted in the previous financial year. There was a target to monitor the implementation of the national integrated social crime prevention strategy action plan by all provinces, and here the DSD managed to monitor all but one of the provinces (Free State) due to financial constraints.
DSD had met its target to draft legislation on Victim Empowerment Services, by developing the Draft Bill on Victim Empowerment Services. Also in relation to victim empowerment services (VES), DSD had planned to facilitate the implementation of Gender-Based Violence Prevention programmes in nine provinces. The draft Gender-Based Violence Prevention Programme was completed in the fourth quarter, and presented to the Deputy Director General’s Forum for approval.
A national Framework for accreditation of organisations providing anti-human trafficking services had been developed and four shelters met the framework for accreditation.
DSD planned to facilitate implementation of the National Anti-Substance Abuse Programme of Action in all provinces. So far, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape and Free State had been capacitated to implement anti-substance Abuse Programmes of Action (POA). On the target to finalise and facilitate approval of the regulations for the Prevention and Treatment for Substance Abuse Act No. 70 of 2008, the Act had come into force in March 2013. The DSD planned to develop a social mobilisation strategy to facilitate implementation of the Anti-Substance Abuse Campaign and had managed to achieve this. The National Drug Master Plan (NDMP) for 2013-2017 had been developed and was awaiting approval by Cabinet.
In respect of the targets for youth, DSD noted that it had aimed to train 150 youth mentors and trained 209. Against the target to have 300 youth participate in community dialogues, 2 216 actually participated. The DSD aimed to have three provinces implementing intergenerational programmes and this was achieved in Mpumalanga, Limpopo, and Northern Cape. It had exceeded the target to have 1 000 youths attend leadership camps, as 1 341 in total actually participated. On the target to establish nine provincial youth forums, provincial youth forums were established in the Free State and Kwa-Zulu Natal.
Substantial work had been achieved under HIV/AIDS. The DSD aimed to reach 27 wards through social and behaviour change interventions, but actually succeeded in reaching 435 wards. The DSD aimed to train 500 youths to render social behaviour change programmes but 511 were actually trained. DSD aimed to facilitate 60 community conversations on HIV/AIDS and managed to facilitate 84. The DSD aimed to provide psychosocial support services to 442 112 households. DSD provided this support to 501 229 households, and the actual provision of psycho social support was given to 36 253, almost three times the target. It had aimed to facilitate the strengthening of nine provincial and 38 district co-ordinating structures, and managed to achieve this with nine provincial coordinating structures, 42 district coordinating structures and 235 local coordinating structures. 156 home community based care (HCBC) organisations were provided with management training, recorded according to the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system.
Under Social Policy Research and Development, the target to train 50 officials in social policy-making and analysis was exceeded with 55 senior civil servants and parliamentarians being trained.
Programme 5: Social Policy and Integrated Service Delivery was then described. Under Special Projects and Innovations, DSD aimed to create 18 700 Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) job opportunities, but managed to create 171 668 job opportunities in total. DSD aimed to extend Community Work Programmes (CWP) to 151 sites and reached all of them. In relation to Population Policy Promotion, the DSD had targeted training 300 people on integrating population factors into development but ended up managing to train 394 people. DSD also aimed to conduct nine capacity building sessions and ended up conducting 12 sessions.
Under Registration and Monitoring of Non-profit Organisations (NPOs), DSD aimed to develop an NPO online registration system and this had been achieved in 2013. The target to adjudicate 80% of NPO appeals within three months of receipt was achieved. DSD targeted to train 200 provincial offices on NPO governance and the NPO Act, and 260 were actually trained.
DSD aimed to build community development capacity of 300 Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and had managed to train 458. DSD aimed to develop a draft community development occupational framework and achieved two community development personnel levels which formed part of the Draft Occupational Framework. On the target to facilitate the establishment of a Community Development Association, a draft Code of Conduct was developed and it was meant to serve as a guide for the effective functioning of the Community Development Association.
DSD had various targets under Sustainable Livelihoods. The first target was to profile 200 000 households in 100 wards. DSD profiled 187 703. Against the target was to place change agents in 100 wards, DSD made placements in 126 wards. The target was to mobilise 100 communities in 100 wards, but 860 communities in 44 wards were mobilised. On promoting equitable access to food by 200 000 households, 555 957 households actually accessed food through DSD, and the Africa Food, Nutrition Security programme.
Mr Buthelezi moved on to the International Obligations of the DSD for 2012/2013 period. The Department played an active role in promoting the country’s social development agenda and internationally. DSD had international participation with organisations in different countries. During the reporting period, the Department participated in the 19th International AIDS Conference, UN Commission on the Status of Women and International Inter-Ministerial Conference on Evidence for Action. The Department participated in the Post-Millennium Development Goals Contact Group meetings, promoted New Economic Partnerships for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and participated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Social Security Association (ISSA) and International Social Service (ISS). These initiatives provided platforms for sharing social development experiences.
Mr Buthelezi then continued with the Performance summary and challenges. The Department achieved 61% of the targets. 29 % were partially achieved and 10% were not achieved at all. He reiterated that where the DSD had to report on targets not achieved, one reason was that often the DSD had to collaborate with other departments who had their own commitments, and so their performance was not within DSD’s power to control. Other external challenges that were beyond the Department’s control included the fact that social security institutions needed to be restructured to improve co-ordination. Further consultations were required before the Policy on Retirement Reform was finalised. Lack of internal capacity hampered the establishment of an Inspectorate for Social Security. Further challenges included resource limitations and capacity constraints. The Policy on Social Service Practitioners had not been approved due to consultative processes and stakeholder interests. The delay in the finalisation of the White Paper on Families was due to extended consultations.
No bills were submitted to Parliament during 2012/2013.
Mr Clifford Appel, Chief Financial Officer, DSD, presented the budget and expenditure report. R112 143 552 in total was allocated to the Department of Social Development, and the DSD spent R111 115 576 (99.08%) of the budget. Overall, the DSD had under-spent on five programmes. On Programme 1 (see attached presentation for actual figures), the DSD spent 99.33% of budget. This was due to the slow filling of funded vacancy posts and savings on staff travelling, accommodation, venues, and expenditure. For Programme 2, 99.06% was used, due to lower than expected beneficiary uptake rates for Social Assistance Grants. Under Programme 3, 99.78% of the allocated funding was used, with the underspend attributed to delays in finalisation of planned programmes and the establishment of the Inspectorate. Some other projects which could not be established and/or implemented during the period resulted in under-spending. For Programme 4, 95,73% of funding was spent, because of delays in the finalisation of planned projects for the Early Childhood Development audit. Under Programme 5, 99.47% was used and this under-expenditure was mainly due to funded vacancies and related operational costs.
Mr Pakade emphasised that the overall assessment was positive. There had been significant improvements since last year, especially with the addition of more personnel.
The Chairperson wanted to make some preliminary remarks. She commended the DSD on their clean audit. In relation to the over-achievement of targets, she noted that either DSD was extremely enthusiastic, or was simply not setting its targets properly, and wanted a further explanation on the matters where the targets had been exceeded.
The Chairperson wanted to know about the Social Security Inspectorate, where there had been limited progress, and asked what was going to happen to the funding that had not been spent. She asked why DSD had not increased the capacity here. Commenting that DSD had greatly over-achieved on some matters, but not met targets in others, she asked what was hampering DSD from de-activating funds that were established for a good cause, and what would be done about this.
Ms P Xaba (ANC) felt that the programme was too selective on the National Anti-substance Abuse Programme of Action (POA). She hailed from Gauteng, where there was a lot of substance abuse, and asked why Gauteng was not one of these selected provinces.
Ms E More (DA) congratulated DSD on the clean audit. She mentioned that there were still problems with procurement. She noted that DSD only met 61% of its targets but had spent 99% of its budget, and asked what plans DSD had to rectify this anomaly.
Mr M Waters (DA) noticed a contradiction between slides 13 and 60 of the presentation. He asked for clarity about under-spending under social assistance. He asked why, if the Department had more beneficiaries of Social Grants, it had under-spent by almost R1 billion on these grants. He said that two million children were still not covered by grants, and asked why this was so, especially since funds were in fact available.
Ms F Khumalo (ANC) commended the DSD on its clean audit. She echoed the Chairperson’s concerns, asking (in isiZulu) whether the budget was not affected due to the over-achievements.
Ms Khumalo asked whether the 171 000 jobs had provided permanent employment, and whether the employment is targeted towards women or the youth, or spread in general.
Mr V Magagula (ANC) asked about the target of screening 4 000 employees working with children, and checking them against the Child Protection Register (CPR). 32 935 were actually screened. He asked how and to what extent this over-achievement affected the budget.
Mr R Bhoola (MF) commended the DSD on delivering on its mandate. However, he noted a discrepancy in the numbers of CPR, since 400 were mentioned in the presentation slides but 281 in the printed Annual Report.
Mr Bhoola wanted to know about progress in the integration with the Department of Home Affairs.
Mr Bhoola also wanted to know more about the targets. With regard to the 29% partially achieved and the 10% not achieved, he asked whether the findings of the AG would help in rectifying that shortcoming.
Mr Bhoola enquired about registration of NGOs and faith-based organisations in dealing with the problem of substance abuse and whether that had been concluded. He commented that Progress of Rehabilitation centres in KZN was going well, and he thanked the DSD on this delivery.
Ms N Gcume (COPE) said that the improvements of the DSD were clear, and its policy evident. She particularly appreciated the fact that the Minister of Social Development spoke directly to the people in Pondoland, Eastern Cape, about issues they faced. She also thanked DSD for its intervention and SASSA’s attempts with the beneficiaries of Marikana victims. She discussed the brutal killing and raping of the elderly in the Eastern Cape, the taverns close to schools and churches, the unserviced ECD centres, rehabilitation centres and old age homes and commented that on all these serious issues, DSD needed to intervene.
Ms E More (DA) referred to the printed Annual Report, and noted that under programme 5, allocations intended for addressing violence had been shifted, in the amount of R10.3 million, to compensation of employees. She asked if the change in employment did not affect HR capacity. She asked about the increase of money allocated to Walvis Bay and Soul City programmes and whether this was necessary.
The Chairperson also wanted more information about the allocation of money to these two programmes.
Ms More asked what qualified anyone for funding in terms of the Criminal Asset Recovery Account (CARA), noting that only 71 people were shortlisted for receiving funds.
Ms More asked about the Annual Report of the National Development Agency (NDA), pointing out that there was a comment that the system of internal controls was not adequate. She asked if DSD had plans to rectify this.
Mr Coceko Pakade addressed issues on the targets. He explained that part of the challenge in the public service was the manner in which departments had to comply with the broader network of primary objectives. It was hard for the DSD to measure and report its actual impact because it was dealing with operational plans, structures, people, manufacturing and so many other factors. In the past, the DSD used to report on the details of its work during the year, but under the current format the AG said that this form of reporting did not correspond with the Annual Performance Plan. A lot of the work that was actually being done may not necessarily appear on the graphs and tables. The DSD needed to find a way of projecting demand, based on the information that it had. Sometimes, for instance, DSD might set a particular target but, when going to the community, would realise that the demand for its services was actually far greater.
In terms of the alignment of actual budget spend, the DSD needed to monitor expenditure continuously for prudent financial management, and was looking into turnover of personnel.
Mr Pakade noted, in regard to the challenges with the Inspectorate, that targets put in during the previous financial year were, in his opinion, unrealistic and inaccurate. Not enough groundwork had been made to establish the targets correctly. He stressed that the Department needed to redefine the role of the Inspectorate, and was busy doing that at the moment. He added that the strategy would have to be finalised, before going on to the structure. The process of filling positions for the Inspectorate, to ensure integration, was under way.
Mr Pakade said that the bulk of the work had actually been done by the DSD whatever some of the percentages on achievement seemed to indicate.
The consolidation of relief funds was something on which the DSD was working, but this could not be completed in this year, due to time constraints. The funds could not be used because the Fundraising Act needed to be amended.
In relation to supply chain management systems, the main focus was on compliance issues, to avoid irregular expenditure.
The DSD recently joined in the EPWP, and he reported that the jobs were sustainable, even though there were still debates on terms of pay, to comply with the Ministerial determination on the minimum sages.
Mr Pakade indicated that the money allocated to Soul City Programme was for the Kwanda Talk launched on national TV for community engagement on social issues, especially with the youth to build lives and social capital. The Walvis Bay Programme related to money that DSD still paid to old-age pensioners, in terms of a 1994 agreement between the South African and Namibian governments. The increase in allocation was based on demand.
Ms Dianne Dunkerley, General Manager, SASSA also added to the comment on the Walvis Bay programme. The 1994 agreement was to the effect that since 1994, 600 grantees should be paid. The Namibian government paid half of what the South African government paid. SASSA and DSD had both made predictions, with SASSA having R11.3 million, and DSD projecting R11.4 million in respect of benefits.
Mr Pakade answered in relation to CARA, that DSD was initially excluded. The CARA fund held money recovered from criminal activity and was used to fund the victims of crime empowerment programme. There was a screening process but not everyone qualified, due to the limited amount of money available in CARA funds. R26 million was allocated last year.
Mr Zane Dangor, Special Advisor to the Minister of Social Development, said that the reduction of taverns was being implemented, under a robust plan. He explained that re-zoning of taverns would be a difficult issue because of the regulations and disputes in the industry.
Mr Dangor conceded that poor planning and poor implementation of some targets remained a problem. The DSD had fully achieved 58% of the targets in 2011/2012 year, and in the 2012/13 year, 94 out of 154 targets (or 61%) were achieved. He stressed that DSD would need better indicators and planning to change the current situation.
Ms Connie Nxumalo, Deputy Director General: Welfare Services, DSD, spoke to the anti-Substance Abuse Programmes. The four provinces selected were those with weak training and support, but DSD did hold quarterly meetings with all provinces. The registration of treatment centres in KZN was done in terms of legislation and this was delegated to the provinces. She explained that there were certain criteria for funding for the Victim Empowerment Programme, and 71 non-government organisations (NGOs) were approved and taken forward in line with NPO registration. The DSD had set its targets for training 4 000 employees, based on a baseline. She added that DSD could do better in the future in setting the numbers and targets. In relation to the CPR, she noted that the number of 283 that appeared in the Annual Report was the value by the March cut-off, but 488 was the number taking a longer time period.
Mr Peter Netshipale, Deputy Director-General: Development, DSD, added on the NPO registration, noting that the NPO Act stipulated that registrations take place in Pretoria only. DSD had improved access to the service for easier registration. The Department had been moving forward over several years to ensure more NPO support at a local level. All nine provinces have structures to do this.
Mr Brenton Van Vrede, Chief Director: Social Assistance, DSD, responded to the requests in relation to relief funds that had been dormant, and reminded Members that there had been discussion of consolidating funds into one fund. The Defence Force Fund managed funds independently of the DSD. There were complications with repealing or winding down Funds, and DSD was still negotiating around this point. SASSA had taken over the function of providing disaster relief in line with the Social Assistance Act. Noting the comment on the slow uptake with two million children not getting assistance, he conceded that perhaps the Department was targeting the wrong areas and might need to change its strategies.
Ms Bongiwe Ntakumba, Director, DSD, added, in relation to under-spending on grants, that the allocation of grants was always based on as estimate or prediction of the likely number of beneficiaries. Reaching 99% expenditure was actually a sign that the predictions were quite accurate; it was impossible to be 100% accurate. The DSD would rather make a higher estimate, to accommodate all children who might claim grants, than fall short of budget.
Ms Dunkerley said that growth fluctuations needed to be taken into account in relation to social assistance. The DSD, National Treasury and SASSA did their own projections. There was reduced back-pay of grants, as some people had come forward to cancel their registrations.
The Chairperson had some concerns regarding child protection legislation. She said that 438 queries were processed in terms of the CPR for 2011/2012, but wanted to get a written response on the 2012/13 figures.
Ms F Khumalo asked if the stipend for CCG was according to Ministerial determination.
Mr Pakade said that the rate was around R60 per day (or about R1 300 per month) for home based care services.
Mr Netshipale confirmed that the rate was indeed set by ministerial determination.
The Chairperson thanked the Department, and noted that in the following week the Committee would be analysing the SASSA Annual Report, which had, for the first time, been compiled by SASSA itself without using consultants.
The Chairperson reminded DSD that the contractual term for the audit committee would shortly expire, and stressed that DSD would have to advertise to ensure that there were no lapses in the Committee. She stressed the importance of the Director General writing a report on how the Department would address the concerns of the Committee.
The meeting was adjourned.
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