ATC110414: Repor on Public Hearings concerning Access & Delivery of Quality Education

Basic Education

Report of the Portfolio Committee on Basic Education on public hearings concerning Access and Delivery of Quality Education, dated 12 April 2011


The Portfolio Committee on Basic Education, having conducted public hearings on access and the delivery of quality education, reports as follows:


1.             Introduction and Background


1.1.             The Portfolio Committee on Basic Education held public hearings in Parliament on access and delivery of quality education.


1.2.             These public hearings followed a growing recognition that whilst much was done to achieve the government’s goal of access to education, there remained areas of concern, particularly with regard to equal access to quality education from all categories of learners and the questionable levels of learning outcomes.  As part of the Committee’s oversight role and due to growing interest in the subject of quality education, it was decided to ascertain the views of various stakeholders, and in particular teachers, through public hearings.


1.3.             Through these public hearings, the Committee intended to obtain first-hand information on the pressure points and to find mutual solutions that would make a positive contribution towards improving the quality and integrity of the basic education system.


1.4.             The Committee received 223 written submissions and 24 oral submissions from a range of stakeholders, including teachers, principals, unions, parents, academics, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and the business sector. The oral phase of the hearings was held between 12 May and 29 July 2010 (see Annexure 1). Although the cut-off date for the written submission was 28 February 2010, the Committee continued to receive and accept these submissions until the end of September 2010. It was always envisaged that the hearings would not be a once-off exercise, but an ongoing theme within the Committee. The Committee considered the written submissions between 4 August 2010 and 12 April 2011 (Annexure 1).


1.5.             During the consideration of submissions, the Committee looked at a summary of each individual submission in conjunction with the relevant full submission received. Due to the large response to the call for submissions and the Committee’s resolve to consider each submission reasonably, the process took a long period of time to complete. Simultaneously, the Committee had other very pressing business to attend to in Parliament.


1.6.             At each oral submission, Department of Basic Education senior officials were present to clarify the position of the department on issues raised by the public. Where possible, the Committee also conducted its research to verify claims made in the submissions.


1.7.             Where the Committee felt there was merit in the submission, core aspects of that submission were included in the report.


1.8.             There was a substantial overlap in the issues that emerged. The report gives an account of these issues and the deliberations of the Committee. As the Department of Basic Education had embarked on a major process to review the implementation of the National Curriculum Statement during the period of these hearings, the Committee took a decision to present issues raised pertaining to the curriculum as a separate section. These are captured in section 2.1, while the other issues raised are set out in section 2.2. Where the Department has made progress in addressing the issues raised in this report, this is noted.


2.           Issues emerging from the Hearings


2.1.             Curriculum issues


Issues that emerged during the public hearings pertaining to the curriculum can be classified under two main categories, namely, curriculum design and structure, and curriculum implementation:


2.1.1 Curriculum design and structure


There were several problem areas raised pertaining to curriculum design and structure. These related to curriculum coherence, pitch of content, assessment standards, sequence and progression in terms of content and language policy.


Although the Review report of Curriculum 2005 (DoE, 2000) identified some of these issues in its evaluation of Curriculum 2005, for example, the importance of curriculum coherence, content specification and progression, and the Department had been making some progress in addressing them, it was clear from the hearings and submissions that further work needed to be carried out in some of these areas.


To this end, there was general support for the findings and recommendations of the recent Ministerial Review of the implementation of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS)[1]. The discussion below indicates the problem areas raised.    Curriculum coherence


The submissions and hearings highlighted gaps in content in certain subjects/learning areas. Specifically, teachers[2] noted a lack of articulation of the syllabus between Grades 11 and 12 in Life Sciences and between Grades 9 and 10 in Mathematics. It was indicated that when learners pass Life Sciences in Grade 11, they are unable to perform basic experiments in the subject in Grade 12. With regard to the gap in content in Mathematics, the hearings pointed out that too little time was allocated to algebra in Grade 9 than is required to lay a foundation for Grade 10. Natural Science was also raised as particularly problematic with the subject lacking continuity in Grade 9. In addition, it was also reported that the gap between Grade 9 and 10 in this subject is too great with regards to the amount of content and level of cognitive development.    Pitch of content


The suitability of content in certain grades was questioned. It emerged from the hearings that practical work in Life Science grades 11 and 12 is difficult for learners to execute, particularly in reproduction and DNA application. This was attributed largely to the fact that many schools are under-resourced and do not have science laboratories and computer centres. This situation results in practical work being conducted theoretically without any experiments to enhance understanding and application of knowledge. It also emerged that practical work was difficult to perform in Natural Science Grade 9, for example, genetics. Furthermore, some topics were deemed to be too advanced in Natural Science for the Grade 9 level, for example, excretion and respiration. In Economics, learners in Grades 10 – 12 were said to be having difficulty with Learning Outcome 2 – Micro Economics in comprehending the content and graphs[3]. Similarly, concepts in the Intermediate Phase were reported to be introduced before the learners were developmentally ready. This was said to be particularly the case in Mathematics, Geography, History, Economics and Management Sciences (EMS) and Technology[4]. In Mathematics, division, fractional, measurement and time concepts were cited as cases in point. With regard to the concern about EMS, the Committee notes the department’s plan to delay the teaching of this subject until Grade 7 as from 2012, and believes that this will ensure that learners are developmentally ready at this stage.


In Accounting, it was felt that learners were expected to deal with real life scenarios and situations in which they have no experience[5]. There was also a concern that certain topics such as cash flow statements were difficult for learners and as a result the weaker learners were discouraged.


A concern was also raised that the curriculum for First Additional Language (FAL) was similar to that of Home Language in Afrikaans and isiZulu[6]. It was argued that FAL should focus more on communication skills, building confidence in speaking, reading understanding and writing the language[7].


The gaps in the suitability of content as identified in the subjects above should be addressed in the curriculum documents to facilitate the effective implementation of the National Curriculum Statements.    Content overload


There were concerns raised in written submissions that the content is compact in the following subjects, which resulted in learners experiencing difficulty in comprehending the subjects[8]:


·         Afrikaans, First Additional Language (FAL) (Grade 12)

·         Economics (Grade 10 – 12)

·         Natural Science (Grade 7 – 9)

·         Physical Science (Grade 10 - 12)


Similarly, in Foundation and Intermediate Phases, submissions[9] commented that there was insufficient time to develop and internalise basic concepts and skills. Specifically, several submissions and hearings called for more focus on basic numeracy skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division as well as literacy skills such as spelling, reading, phonics and comprehension[10]. The Committee welcomes the progress that the department has made in a bid to address this challenge in the Intermediate Phase through the planned reduction in the number of subjects from eight to six, with effect from 2012[11].  Care should be taken to ensure that there is sufficient time for learners to develop and internalise basic concepts and skills in the reconfigured subjects.


Recommendations from the submissions


The submissions made the following recommendations for the department’s consideration:


·         With regard to the subjects mentioned above for the Senior and FET Phases, the amount of content to be taught should be revised or the time allocated to these subjects should be increased.

·         Physics and Chemistry should be separate subjects as taught in other countries[12].    Curriculum relevance


The need to incorporate the following themes/subjects in the curriculum was raised:           Vocational guidance


Several submissions observed that many learners lack awareness of the many varied jobs available in the market place. The Committee endorses the recommendation from some of these submissions with an emphasis on teaching subject choices in Grade 9 for Grade 10It is also crucial for provincial education departments to evaluate the feasibility of introducing innovative web-based programmes[13] identified elsewhere in this report, to support learners in making their subject choices.           Teaching values


A number of submissions and hearings from parents and teachers called for the inclusion of values as a major component of the curriculum in order to instil discipline and promote good morals. Despite the fact that religious education is included in the curriculum as part of Life Orientation[14], many of these submissions called for the introduction of religion as a primary medium to impart values. This may well be the result of varied and inconsistent coverage of religion and values in general, between schools, districts and provinces. Other submissions[15] called for a greater promotion of Constitutional values such as human rights, citizenship, equality and freedom from discrimination.




  • Recognising that the curriculum already has a section on religion and values, it is recommended that teachers receive sufficient training to impart values consistently and appropriately.
  • Values should infuse the teaching of all subjects.
  • The current changes to the National Curriculum Statement to ensure that every subject in each grade provides details on the content to be taught by teachers should be extended to give greater specificity to the stipulation of values to be learnt.
  • In keeping with the Constitutional guarantee for freedom of and for religion, the Committee regards as essential the provision of the Policy on Religion and Education to ensure a finer balance in the promotion of the different religions in schools and to protect learners from any religious coercion that might be implied by the state.           Physical Education


Some submissions called for the reintroduction of Physical Education into the curriculum as a separate subject or at least to allocate more periods in its current form as a component of Life Orientation.


The Committee welcomes the plans of the Department to allocate time for Physical Education within the timetable in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS). It further supports a plea from the submissions that schools should be provided with human and material resources to support this change. Financial literacy and entrepreneurship


There was also a call from some submissions[16] for the inclusion of financial literacy and entrepreneurship as compulsory components of Life Orientation that should be introduced as early as possible to inculcate responsible financial behaviour and to prepare learners to be self-sufficient as adults and potential entrepreneurs.    Assessment standards


At the time of the public hearings, assessment standards were a central curriculum organising devise for the NCS which detailed expected knowledge, skills and values. Consistent with the findings of the Ministerial Review of the NCS, the hearings and submissions indicated that assessment standards were unclear in some subjects and limited in the extent to which they show scope, sequence, pace and progression. Assessment standards were argued to be particularly problematic in Technology[17]. The manner in which knowledge, skills and values had been integrated, often within the same assessment standard, called for a more specific interpretation, often not known to the teacher and therefore not easily interpreted into usable activities[18]


Consequently, teachers continued teaching the content they were in the habit of teaching prior to 1998. Teachers randomly selected assessment standards to match what they were teaching, often neglecting most of the assessment standards. As a result, learners progressed with many assessment standards not completed thus not achieving those covered, creating an accumulated backlog of work.


    Sequence and progression with regard to content


Similar to the findings of the Ministerial Review of the NCS, one of the key concerns that emerged from the hearings and submissions is that the NCS does not specify the scope and sequence of the content to be taught in certain subjects. This concern was especially expressed in relation to GET Natural Science, Technology Grade 4 and Business Studies Grades 10 – 12. In the case of Business Studies, it was reported that, owing to the lack of content specification, many schools articulated that teachers lacked the necessary guidance to prepare their learners for the Grade 12 examination paper[19].


The Committee commends the department’s plans to introduce comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) that will provide content and assessment specification on a grade-by-grade and subject-by-subject basis.    Assessment


It was felt that learners are required to cover many assessment tasks for many subjects. As a result they experience problems when setting to complete the required assessment tasks and submit them on time.


Assessment concerns were also expressed relating to certain subjects. In Afrikaans (First Additional Language) it was reported that there are too many assessment tasks repeated during the year. It was recommended that Paper 3 should be left out of the June examination paper and rather be written in November[20] or it should be excluded from examination and made an in-school assessment[21]. A second concern expressed regarding Afrikaans was that there was little distinction between First Additional Language and Home Language in their examination papers[22].


Accounting examination question papers were said to have an excess of theory content and audit work. In addition, there was a complaint that time allocation for the subject was inadequate. This was especially experienced in the 2009 Trial Paper.


A concern was raised that the NSC memoranda appear to be drawn from one particular textbook which creates problems for schools that use a different textbook.


The Committee feels that it is crucial that the above concerns regarding assessment are addressed, including, where possible, via the proposed Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements.    Quality of systemic assessment tests in primary schools


Three concerns were raised regarding the quality of systemic assessment tests conducted in primary schools in the Western Cape. These are as follows[23]:


·         There were language errors in papers which appeared to have been translated from English to Afrikaans.

·         While learners are normally provided with rubrics prior to any written work for in-school assessment these were not provided in the provincial systemic assessment tests.

·         There were mistakes in the memoranda and they gave no guidance on how to mark spelling and grammar mistakes in language.


The need to ensure that these concerns are addressed was raised.    Administrative load


As with the Ministerial Review of the NCS, many submissions complained about the excessive administrative duties and paper work required in the National Curriculum Statement, which impacted on actual teaching and the psychological well-being of teachers.  The Committee welcomes progress made by the department to reduce this administrative workload by reducing the amount of recording, reporting and the number of projects for learners[24]. This will allow teachers more time to focus on teaching. However, the Committee notes the complaint from some submissions that contrary to what the department suggests, the changes to the portfolios and teacher files do not create less work. It is maintained that although the teacher is now required to have only one file, the information contained therein remains the same and where a teacher teaches more than one subject and grade, it is not possible to keep all the information in one file. The Committee urges the department to investigate this matter. Quality of textbooks


There were complaints in some submissions regarding the quality of textbooks, which was a stumbling block in the achievement of academic knowledge, skills and values. In a comprehensive submission on textbooks, their variable quality was attributed to design flaws in the National Curriculum Statement and the inefficiency of the evaluation process[25]. The submission noted that some textbooks were pitched at a language level higher than the ability of students. This often caused problems for second language learners, a factor which manifested in the high matriculation failure rate. The submission further highlighted that many textbooks were poorly structured, explanations confusing, new concepts and technical terms introduced without definitions, examples irrelevant and content uninspiring.


Some submissions showed concern with the lack of quality of textbooks in Numeracy in the Foundation Phase, Indigenous Languages and Physical Science. It was felt that Numeracy was not supported by sufficient textbooks or materials in a modular form to allow for practice and consolidation to be conducted in an organised manner. Exercises were said to be changing from one aspect to another in a haphazard manner. The Committee notes the positive steps the department has taken in improving the quality of textbooks for numeracy through the provision of workbooks for learners in Grades 1 – 6 and the development of a national catalogue of learning and teaching support materials from which schools can select textbooks[26]. It will be vital that this catalogue includes quality learning and teaching materials produced in Indigenous Languages[27].


Regarding the textbooks for Physical Science, the concern expressed was that those provided by the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) were incomplete on certain topics and did not contain the detail and depth expected of learners in Grade 12.




·         Much more work remains to be done to ensure that the quality of the textbooks used is not limited by the financial capacity of the school.

·         Submissions recommended that examiners of the Physics and Chemistry papers work through the textbooks on the GDE list of accepted textbooks and identify areas where these books are incomplete in order to compile a list of acceptable definitions for terms asked in the exam.

·         There was support for the department’s recent recognition of the need for teachers to effectively utilise textbooks and it was felt that this should be included in the education and training of teachers[28].

·         It was further recommended that relevant research institutions should be encouraged to conduct coordinated research with regard the development of quality textbooks and their utilisation as part of effective teaching practice[29]. Provision of Learning and Teaching Support Materials 


Submissions expressed concern at the failure of provinces and districts to deliver sufficient Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) before the start of the school year, with one submission[30] indicating that they were in their third week of the school calendar year and had still not received textbooks. Academic versus vocational stream


Several submissions and hearings[31] made an appealing case for vocational education to be introduced in mainstream schooling to cater for learners who have limited interest in the academic stream and are either practically oriented or need to acquire skills within a short time, find work and support their families. Schools of Skills which are mainly located in the Western Cape provide one successful model of vocational education in schools which should be supported and up scaled into other provinces. The submission and oral hearing by Westcliff School of Skills highlighted the challenges presented by the present curriculum to learners who are marginally cognitively disabled with behavioural problems. These learners find the tempo at mainstream schools too fast and find routine essential. They are also disconnected from other learners and educators and may be unlikely to pass a matric examination. Indications are that when these learners attend Schools of Skills they acquire a range of technical skills and find it easier to find employment in various trades[32]. They are also taught how to become entrepreneurs. This offers them the opportunity to participate and give back to their communities. The Committee supports a proposal from some submissions that teachers should be trained and become experienced in these fields before such new schools and streams are established.




 Language barriers


A number of submissions touched on challenges related to language. While there was considerable support to educate young learners in their mother tongue[33] in lower grades, in order to develop literacy and thinking skills, there was also an appreciation that English as an international language should be introduced as a First Additional Language in Grade 1 to enable learners to develop educational concepts and provide their foundation to be accessible to learn in the global arena. It was also recommended that the teaching of English as a First Additional Language and the indigenous languages should be supported with the provision of appropriate texts and a variety of appropriate supplementary readers for all grades.


Some submissions raised the need for official documents to provide guidance on the implementation of the Language in Education Policy (LIEP), particularly with reference to the promotion of multilingualism[34].    


2.1.2          Curriculum Implementation


Key problem areas pertaining to curriculum implementation related to the curriculum approach, constant changes and teacher development.    The curriculum approach


It has emerged from the hearings that the introduction of OBE was characterised by top-down approaches which failed to relate change to what teachers knew and were trained in. This has left teachers confused and insecure. In most instances, there has been little fundamental change to the teachers’ approach to learning and teaching but teachers failed to be aware of this as they have been bombarded with new terminology and concepts for what they were doing already[35].


Another important factor which was raised, and highlighted by the NCS Review report, was that most principals were the last to understand what was going on and failed to facilitate the changes[36].    Constant changes


Constant policy changes, including through the issuing of circulars, are reported to be confusing to teachers. Consideration should be made to minimize the issuing of many policy changes simultaneously.    Teacher development


Many submissions and hearings recognised teacher quality as the most important lever for improving student outcomes[37]. However, there was general consensus that most educators lack the requisite skills to perform the range of functions that the new curriculum requires of them. These include being assessors, possessing pastoral care roles and developing learning programmes.


In line with the findings of the Ministerial Review of the NCS, the submissions and hearings argued that the cascaded training of subject advisors/curriculum implementers provided by the state has not been effective. It is argued inter alia that OBE trainers were not adequately equipped to teach the OBE system and that training neglected practical implementation and skills[38]. There was an urgent call for the training of subject advisors/curriculum implementers to be centralised and located in a number of suitable centres, by the most experienced educator trainers available and for a longer period of time than is currently the case. Most submissions and hearings suggested the need for more subject specific training. Many also called for educators to be credited when completing their training. There was a plea that training should be suitably differentiated to suit teachers at different levels of understanding and with varying degrees of experience and expertise[39].


It was also recommended that there should be a strong component of post training classroom and cluster support and monitoring which is currently inadequately provided for. In this respect, the establishment of NEEDU to focus on issues of evaluation and monitoring is a necessary development and there is an urgent need to fastrack its operations. A view was also expressed that the department should consider providing learners with a toll-free number to report the lack of curriculum coverage to a unit such as NEEDU. 


2.2             Other issues


This section of the report identifies other issues that featured prominently in the submissions and hearings in relation to the delivery of quality education. These include issues at the school level, access to education for vulnerable children, initiatives from the private sector, teacher, management and district/department issues.


2.2.1          Issues at the Schools level    Class size


The issue of class size was frequently raised. Many submissions complained about the existence of large classes in many schools and called for their reduction in order to promote the quality of educational outcomes. Most of these submissions suggest class sizes ranging from 20 – 30 learners per class. Some submissions and hearings called for special provision to be made for the Foundation Phase[40] and multilingual schools[41], where learners need a great deal of individual attention.


Research conducted by the HSRC has found significant disparities in class size both within and between provinces and the urban and rural divide. Recent statistics compiled by the Department of Basic Education[42], show that there are approximately 671 ordinary schools nationally that have classes with more than 46 learners in class.


The Committee notes that the issue of whether to reduce class size with a view on student outcomes is underpinned by many factors, including financial costs which are considerable, particularly if the reduction is substantial. Compounding the problem of class size is the observation that some principals are overloading schools to have high enrolment to enable them to earn salaries since learner enrolment figures have a bearing on their salary. The Committee is of the opinion that the Department should first pay attention to ensuring that the current national norms and standards for teacher-learner ratio (1:35 in secondary schools and 1:40 in primary schools) are enforced consistently across provinces and schoolsThe Committee also welcomes the proposed revised post provisioning model which aims to compensate for the different needs of small schools and schools where there is multi-grade teaching. The Committee expects a report on the pilot study to assess the impact of this model on the quality teaching and learning in schools.    Inclusive education


There were numerous comments in the submissions and hearings regarding inclusive education. Many teachers feel that inclusive education is difficult to realise considering the shortage of resources and large class sizes in many schools[43]. At the same time, teachers themselves are not given enough support to educate learners with special needs since their training is not specialised to deal with such learners. Further, learners who are not challenged are held back by those learners needing more attention. There were strong calls that the district support for inclusive education be improved to be able to address the purpose of inclusive education. The need for schools to have adequate access to specialist support staff such as counsellors, psychologists, speech therapists, social workers and diagnostic psychiatrists was also raised[44], as was the need for more qualified ELSN educators. One submission[45] noted that there were several counsellors and psychologists in the private/independent sphere who would be willing to give of their time to either engage with schools directly or to train the departmental trainers. Another submission[46], drawing from experience in implementing school-based care and support interventions, recommended that the Inclusive Education strategy developed by the KwaZulu Natal Department of Education should be considered as a model for the country for its ‘holistic’ and ‘practical’ approach.    Special schools


Several submissions and hearings noted that inclusive education does not meet the needs of learners with problems such as cerebral palsy and autism and that there were insufficient special schools that cater for these learners. The need to increase the number of schools that cater for children with special needs such as the blind, deaf and mentally challenged was also raised. Research conducted by the Committee drawn from the Department’s data, shows that the Western Cape and Gauteng have a disproportionately high number of schools for special needs education compared with other provinces. The relative lack of special schools in other provinces means that learners with special needs who cannot be adequately catered for in mainstream schools are either placed inappropriately in public ordinary schools or remain out of school. According to the General Household Survey[47], the percentage of 7-to-15 year olds with disabilities who do not attend school is estimated at 10 per cent. The Survey further suggests that a considerable proportion of children, aged 16 to 18, who suffer from a disability (47 per cent), is not participating in any form of education[48].  There is clearly a need to ensure that all learners have equal access to remedial education, regardless of their socio-economic background.


The Committee recommends that an approach to support learners through specialised classes be explored whereby learners are removed from the mainstream for the period required to attend to their challenges and then reintroduced into the mainstream if possible. In addition, there should be a programme system of infrastructure provision that will address the challenge of infrastructure that accommodates all learners who are physically challenged, e.g., ramps, etc. To this end, it is essential that the department accelerates the expansion of full service schools from the current 20 such schools established in 20 districts to the envisaged full service school in every one of the 92 education districts in the country[49].    




While the envisaged increase in the current number of full service schools will no doubt help to alleviate the challenge posed by a relative lack of special schools in most provinces, further research should be conducted to explore the feasibility of increasing the number of special schools in the provinces where there is an acute need.    School readiness


The Committee is of the view that there should be full screening processes on health matters like eyes, malnutrition, etc and not necessarily the IQ or cognitive tests to assist in the school readiness. A key strategy to address the school readiness challenge should be to intensify the rollout of Grade R to all schools. Care should be taken to ensure that Grade R curriculum includes perceptual development.    Libraries


Several submissions and hearings called for the provision of a functional library for every school[50] including the employment of school librarians.In a detailed submission, Equal Education[51] submitted that they had costed this provision and found that it was attainable. Concerned about delays in finalising relevant policies, the Equal Education submission also called for the finalisation of the draft National Policy for an Equitable Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching and Learning Environment, and the National Minimum Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure[52]The Committee notes the department’s recognition that the availability of a school library is critical to the effective delivery of the curriculum and welcomes positive steps taken by the ministry to improve infrastructure including libraries. These steps include the subsequent gazetting of the National Policy for the Equitable Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching and National Environment, the commitment that the Minimum Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure would be in place by the end of the 2010/11 financial year and the introduction of the Accelerated Schools’ Infrastructure Delivery Initiative to accelerate the delivery of school improvementsThe Committee also notes that the new post-provisioning model for educators and support staff makes provision for librarian posts and will closely monitor its implementation and that of other initiatives.




The Committee requests that the department provide clear targets for all initiatives related to the provision of libraries to facilitate its oversight.    Promotion of learners


Some submissions attributed low pass rates in higher classes to the promotion policy designed to keep learners with their age-cohorts. It is felt that when learners are promoted without due regard to their level of ability, problems which arise throughout their education are not addressed at an early stage and have a tendency to build up and create fundamental difficulties in the final year. The department needs to look into this matter.


On another aspect of the promotion requirement, the Committee recommends that the 40% pass rate requirement for Home Language and Mathematics in Grade 8 should be extended to First Additional Language or the Language of Instruction.    Funding


A number of concerns were raised regarding funding. Firstly, it emerged from the submissions that some schools had not been classified as no-fee schools in terms of the Education Laws Amendment Act of 2004, whereas they felt they fitted into this category[53]. The Committee is aware of the problem of inconsistencies in the classification of schools and has taken it up with the department in previous reports. It has further expressed the view that despite the school fee exemption for needy learners, parents have other considerable responsibilities, for example, school uniforms, shoes and stationary and that ways should be found to subsidise these costs[54]. This is particularly necessary given that a recent study found household poverty and the cost of education as one of the most common reasons for learners leaving school in the 7 to 18 age group[55]. The Committee expects a progress report to address these issues.


It was a matter of concern that parents who pay fees are subsidising those who do not at fee-paying schools[56]. It was felt that the state needs to compensate fee-charging schools for learners who are admitted and whose parents cannot or will not pay fees.


A perception also existed among schools that the better a school performs, the less funding it receives. As a result, it was felt that there was a financial disincentive for schools to be financially efficient and strive to increase the quality of their teaching[57].  Much more needs to be done to dispel this perception, including the implementation of a much clearer positive incentive structure.


A further concern raised was the provincial education departments’ delay in crediting qualifying school accounts with their norms and standards monies, thereby posing a challenge to the school’s operations. Mpumalanga was cited as a case in point, where many schools which had audited their books as per policy requirement had not received their grant at the end of May 2010[58].  The Committee notes the need for timeous allocation of state funds to all qualifying schools.    Early Childhood Development (ECD)


There was widespread support for the need to focus on improving the quality of early childhood education, including the implementation of government’s Foundation for Learning Campaign, which emphasises the promotion of language and numeracy.


Recent research on Early Childhood Development (ECD)[59] suggests that the lives of young children can be enhanced by increasing access to quality training for practitioners, improving the service conditions of practitioners and expanding the range and quality of ECD programmes supported by government. The Committee notes that government funding has significantly increased access to ECD training. However, over and above receiving regular updates from the department on the expansion of access to quality ECD opportunities and training, the Committee requires a report on the effectiveness of this training and conditions of service of practitioners at registered ECD sites. The Committee also urges the department to strengthen coordination in planning and implementing ECD programmes with the Department of Social Development.    Mentoring of learners


There was a suggestion that just as medical and other graduates perform community work, all university students should be expected to mentor or tutor younger learners in Grades 10 – 12[60]. It was felt that mentoring was also about safety and a sense of belonging. Infrastructure


The issue of infrastructure is a challenge in many schools and requires special attention. Specific areas of infrastructure noted were the state of ablution facilities[61], access to water, libraries, electricity and science laboratories. It was also reported that several schools suffer from a lack of basic furniture and it takes up to two years for more chairs to arrive[62]. In addition some submissions highlighted that subject-specific resource shortages are also a problem, including those of physical education, music and the arts[63]. The Committee welcomes the department’s proposed “Accelerated Schools’ Infrastructure Delivery Initiative (ASIDI”) whose main goal is to eradicate mud and unsafe structures and improve other areas of infrastructure such as laboratories, libraries and administration blocks by 2014. The Committee feels that the initiative forms an important foundation to ensure sound infrastructure and will closely monitor the roll-out and allocation of resources to this initiative. However, much more needs to be done if all the infrastructure concerns expressed by the submissions and hearings are to be addressed.  




Attention was drawn in the submissions to the need for local municipalities to be engaged regarding provision of services for schools, appropriate library facilities as well as land needed for school buildings[64].


It was also suggested that capacity should be developed at district level to assist in identifying pressure points in school infrastructure provision.


2.2.2          Access to education for vulnerable children    Orphans and street children


It was asserted that the provision of basic education should take into cognisance the fact that there are many abused, abandoned and disturbed children such as orphans and street children who required special support. In this regard, it was argued that inclusive education when implemented effectively should assist in building up the psychical dimensions of orphans[65]. Some submissions emphasised however that providing levels of support required partnership with appropriate agencies and departments[66]. It was also suggested that mobile schools should be used for homeless children and orphans where they have no direct access to a proper school[67].


A submission[68] drawing from the experience of educating street children in the Eastern Cape, argued that they do not “fit” into mainstream education or any of the traditional special needs categoriesNoting that there were only four government registered schools operating in South Africa to meet the specific needs of street children[69], the submission called for the establishment of more such schools, which should operate both at academic and social development levels.    Children living on farms


With regard to children living on commercial farms, a household study on access to education in South Africa, conducted by Social Surveys and the Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS), showed that school attendance for youth aged 16 to 18 was far lower than the other settlement types, followed by attendance for youth living in informal settlements[70]. It is vital that ways be found to improve access to education for these children, including through the provision of transport and hostels. However, as the SADTU submission cautions, “it is essential to carefully monitor the conditions at hostel schools to prevent possible abuse”.  It is also crucial to ensure that teachers in farm schools receive adequate support to improve their skills in teaching multigrade classes.    Children in trouble with the law and education in prisons


It was felt that not enough consideration is given to the rehabilitation of children in prisons into the family or possible community structures[71]. Many of these children are often abandoned by their families[72] and are not allowed back to their previous school[73]. It was further reported that there is no curriculum coordination for learners in conflict with the law who are temporarily placed in ‘schools of safety’ for the duration of their court cases[74].  


The Committee supports the need to strengthen interventions aimed at supporting all vulnerable children.


2.2.3          Proposed initiatives from the private sector, NGOs, individuals and institutions


A number of submissions from the private sector, NGOs and individuals proposed valuable and varied initiatives to improve the quality of teaching and learning. These initiatives included materials which have been developed and books written on aspects of education and these are marketed to the Department and interested stakeholders. While most of the submissions generally described the proposed initiatives and their envisaged benefit to education, some also provided details of implementation processes and monitoring measures. The proposed initiatives and materials covered areas such as cognitive development, learning skills, curriculum content, career guidance and teaching and learning methodology. They included the following:


  • A proposal to implement a cognitive training programme in schools aimed at enriching the teaching and learning process[75].
  • A proposal to establish a digital broadcast network (interactive television) for the further professional development of educators and School Governing Bodies (SGBs)[76].
  • A book on a new cognitive model for the life skills curriculum for learners aged 7 to 14 designed to stimulate individual growth, group dynamics and task completion[77].
  • A Digital Book Disk (DBD) in education designed to enhance teaching and learning and requiring a TV and DVD-player to access the programme[78].
  • A practical manual, cassette or CD developed to improve the standard of education and management in schools[79].
  • A computer aided course designed to improve spatial and logical intelligence in engineering and mathematics[80].
  • An approach by the Maths Centre to address cumulative performance gaps in mathematics, science and technology by developing an extensive understanding of reasoning, making connections, representation, communication and problem solving. The Centre, which has 27 projects in all nine provinces[81], has also developed assessment tools that inform the planning of interventions at teacher level, learner level and whole school level.
  • A web-based career discovery software for educators and learners in Grade 6, Grade 9 and Grade 11 and higher education students designed to help learners/students to discover their work style, motivational environments, career roles and productive professions[82].
  • A web-based and CD-based programme to support educators and schools in holistic learner development, including areas such as subject choices for grade 10, inclusive education, emotional well-being and trauma and welfare situations[83].
  • A proposal to teach high frequency words in languages in the Foundation Phase to improve reading and writing skills[84]




The Committee proposes that the Department creates an ongoing forum for these kinds of initiatives to be showcased and give different provincial departments an opportunity to evaluate and exercise their options.


2.2.4          Teacher issues    Values in education


Low standard values and attitudes of teachers were also raised as a barrier to quality education regardless of the content knowledge the teacher might possess[85]. In FEDSAS’ view, far too many teachers lack work ethic, discipline and dedication[86]. The Committee notes that values in education are absolutely important and should receive sufficient attention.




  • In order to instil a culture of work ethic in teachers, there was support for the evaluation of teachers in terms of their learner performance, and to link this to financial benefits for performing teachers. It is believed that this measure would ensure that teachers care about their learners’ understanding of content and would make an effort to be in class, on time and teaching. In addition, they would make use of any opportunity for professional development that the department might arrange.    Discipline


The issue of discipline was repeatedly brought to the attention of the Committee. This comprises both learner and teacher discipline. Several submissions viewed the lack of learner discipline as one of the biggest threats to the quality of education. While the department’s initiative to develop a manual on alternatives to corporal punishment is commendable, it is clear that most teachers need more thorough exposure to these alternatives. Some submissions and hearings[87] described successful methods to discipline learners. Such methods should be adopted by other schools. 


Many submissions noted that serious learner discipline problems referred to the provincial departments by schools are often not followed up. It was felt that the department needed to increase their support, including through the provision of social workers and psychologists to provide support structures for teachers when disciplining children who have committed serious offences.


Discipline amongst teachers was identified as a considerable problem in certain areas. The Committee felt that teacher discipline needed to be dealt with through the Education Labour Relations Act. Further research and support in disciplinary mechanisms in each province was needed. The Committee agreed that a forum of Chairpersons of Committees on Education should monitor and oversee the implementation of a uniform system of discipline with teachers in all provinces.    Passion and commitment for the profession


Consistent with recent research[88], a number of submissions[89] emphasised the strength of the commitment, dedication, goal orientation and focus of teachers as fundamental in producing good results in effective schools. Closely related was the endorsement of the need for teachers to be in school, in class, on time, teaching seven hours a day[90], as prioritised by Government.


The Committee supports the position that committed teachers and their schools should be supported and recognised.    Teacher remuneration


Several submissions from teachers and former teachers argued that teachers are underpaid. As a result, experienced teachers are leaving the profession. The Committee notes that the issue of teacher remuneration is not an isolated issue but affects the provision of textbooks, teacher-learner ratio and other essential needs in education.    Use of former teachers as volunteers


The Committee supports the recommendation from several submissions that the department encourage volunteers from willing and available members of the community, in particular, the cohort of former teachers of critical subjects such as Mathematics and Science to assist schools in the teaching of these subjects. This is essential in ensuring that education becomes a community issue.    Teacher assistants


Some submissions[91] raised the need for a teacher assistant in every classroom or at least for each grade. It was felt that in this way qualified teachers could focus on ensuring that learners are learning the required academic content and that they are not distracted by additional workloads of administration. It was also maintained that having an assistant in each classroom would provide an opportunity for the qualified teacher to mentor the teacher in training who in turn could be studying part time while assisting, thus increasing the teacher workforce every year[92].    Teacher development


It emerged from the submissions that new subjects were introduced without subject specialists at school level and existing educators were not adequately trained to teach these subjects. Along with insufficient and inadequate teacher training at school level, some submissions noted a lack of teacher training programmes in higher education institutions for new subjects such as Consumer Studies[93] and sections such as statistics in mathematics and notes in accounting[94]. They argue that this lack of foresight hamper the development and expansion of the subjects. The Committee supports the recommendation from submissions that new subjects should not be introduced unless there is a proper induction and training for teachers. There is also a need for newly qualified teachers to work alongside experienced teachers for mentoring and support[95] in respect of subject specialisations and adequate preparations for appropriate methodologies.


Several submissions and hearings[96], concerned with issues of quality and timing of teacher training, articulated the need to centralise the training of teachers and subject advisors in a number of suitable centres, by the most experienced trainers available for a period of at least three weeks for each target group in order to suffice sustainable capacitation. Teachers and principals complained that current training provided by subject advisors tends to put more focus on administration rather than providing relevant curriculum support to teachers[97]. There was a strong call for the training to emphasise content and be held pre-term during the holidays.  The need to involve competent teachers in planning and leadership was also raised, as was a plea for teachers to receive computer literacy.


In addition, it was felt that teachers need to be encouraged to study further. In this regard, it was suggested that study leave and financial support by Government should be reintroduced[98].    Colleges of education


Several submissions called for the reopening of colleges of education to help increase the teaching work force required in the system[99] and to provide on-going teacher development and support[100].


It was argued that the closure of colleges of education had resulted in the departments of education losing control over this important process which was now largely in the hands of universities[101]. It is maintained that teacher training is not the highest priority of universities[102]. This could be the reason for the shortage of Grade R – 3 African Language mother tongue teachers in the system[103]. The perception also exists that teachers who enter the profession with a degree are not trained in crucial areas such as discipline, preparation and planning, extra-mural activities and required school administration.    Teacher shortages


The teacher shortage was also raised as a problem affecting many schools, which results in inter alia schools joining several classes together to be taught by one teacher and teachers teaching more classes each week, thereby severely compromising the quality of teaching and learning. There was a concern that while in theory schools should be allocated additional teachers when their number of learners increase and when they introduce new subjects, in practice this was not actualised. Requests from schools that qualified for additional teachers often went unanswered or were turned down for reasons which schools did not understand[104]. The Committee feels that this matter should be investigated further. With regard to teacher shortages in general, the Committee notes that Government has prioritised the filling of all civil service vacant posts by June 2011[105], and will closely monitor the fulfilment of this priority with regard to Basic Education. 



 Teacher recruitment


Submissions supported the need to market the teaching profession more vigorously in order to attract the best performing young people to the profession[106].  It was also emphasised that the placement of recipients of Funza Lushaka bursaries should receive special attention[107]. The School Management and Leadership submission cited Singapore as a model country where teachers are highly regarded because only the best are accepted for education degrees. The submission further indicated that teachers’ salaries in that country are market related. Influence of unions


Some submissions complained about the militancy of unions and their perceived willingness to disrupt schooling through strike action when their demands are not met, thus affecting learners’ progress. It was also felt that their insistence to hold meetings during teaching time disrupted learning.


The Committee notes that the Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) ((Section 23 (2) (c)) guarantees the right to strike and that trade union activities at school are regulated through the prescripts of the Labour Relations Amendment Act and collective agreements between the employer and teacher unions.  The challenge regarding trade union activities at school is therefore a management issue that needs closer monitoring.


2.2.5          Management issues    Management capacity at school


Submissions raised at least four different challenges in relation to managerial capacity in school. The first was that most current school managers/principals confuse their roles and do not acknowledge that they are part of the entire system. The second concern was that most principals are reluctant to upgrade, re-sharpen and refine their skills. The third problem raised was that the recruitment process of school principals, especially at the former “Black Township and Homeland” schools, is put in the hands of “incompetent parents” and teachers[108] who often make appointments on the basis of relationships they have with candidates rather than on the “ability, integrity and work ethic”[109]. A further concern was that many good teachers are promoted out of the position that they excel in to become principals. They are then lost to the learners who need their expertise and input. Support was shown for promotional posts within the system where such teachers could benefit financially and the schools could benefit from the expertise and experience of their leadership. 


Further recommendations


  • Submissions expressed the need for recruitment and training of able principals who as well as being effective teachers have good intrinsic leadership skills. The Committee notes that Government has acknowledged the need to empower principals to manage their schools and ensure a good environment for teaching and learning[110]. It will closely monitor progress in the implementation of programmes designed to empower principals’ management capacity.
  • Submissions also felt that people who conduct the recruitment process of principals should be thoroughly trained and the process closely monitored.
  • There was an endorsement in some submissions of Government’s recent position that principals should be held accountable for their results in order to encourage their commitment. The Committee is pleased to see that Government intends considering mechanisms to introduce a performance management system for principals in 2011[111]. The Committee urges that this work be finalised expeditiously in consultation with educator unions.  
  • Some submissions suggested that principals in schools where learners are performing well and obtaining excellent pass rates should be interviewed, their methods recorded and replicated at other schools[112]. The Committee feels that the Department should consider ensuring that this happens as a vital mechanism to ensure that best practices are scaled up. The Committee also supports another view expressed in the submissions regarding experienced principals of performing schools that they should be employed to retrain teachers[113].    Parent Involvement


Many submissions decry the lack of parental involvement in most schools. They recognise that successful schools often have an active and supportive parent body.    School Governing Bodies


There was an appeal that School governing Bodies (SGBs) should be developed continuously to provide the necessary support to schools. It was felt that the “three hour training session” offered to SGB members by District Offices are insufficient to enable them to perform their functions effectively. The absence of adequate training results in School Governing Bodies deferring to principals and teachers on important issues, resulting in a scenario whereby “the school leads its governing body rather than vice versa around”[114]


2.2.6          District/Departmental support    District support


Many submissions felt that districts provided little or no support to schools. It was maintained that subject advisors seldom visited schools to support teachers, and the need for more regular visits was emphasised[115]. In general, it was maintained that subject advisors are inept, badly trained, ill-prepared and more often than not impose unrealistic and worthless requirements upon teachers[116]. The Committee notes the concerns expressed regarding the technical capacity of the subject advisors, and feels that their training needs to be considerably upgraded. The Committee will monitor this closely.


There was also a view from the submissions and hearings that more circuit offices should be set up to support the needs of schools. Noting that some circuit managers were responsible for more than 40 schools, it was felt that this number should be reduced to 15 – 20 schools to allow them adequate time to visit schools and monitor them effectively.    Departmental support


The department’s strategy to devote its attention and resources to underperforming schools often has the unintended consequence of encouraging performing schools to compromise their standards in return for resources. The Isandlwana Technical High School submission complained that informative CDs were distributed to under-performing schools late in 2009 and not to performing schools who lacked these resources. It is clear that there is a need to balance support provided to all schools. 


3.           Conclusion and Recommendations


3.1   The Committee has identified many issues in this report that the executive needs to act on. The Committee will also ensure that these recommendations are acted on.


3.2   The Committee also notes the many challenges confronting basic education. Considerable effort will be required to deal with these challenges. Crucial to addressing them will be the active participation of all key stakeholders, including parliament, principals, teachers, unions, parents, NGOs, higher education institutions, business and other key segments of civil societyThese public hearings demonstrated that there is enormous good will, experience, passion and energy ready to support and make a difference. The Committee feels that if all role players work effectively together the quality of education will be significantly improved.


3.3    Issues for follow up


It was agreed that the Committee should follow up on the following issues:


3.3.1          Teacher remuneration


The Committee agreed to convene a symposium on the subject with all relevant stakeholders, including the department, unions, Treasury and the Education Labour Relations Council in order to gain their perspectives.


3.3.2          The role of inspectors


The issue regarding the role of inspectors and the use of retired teachers has been flagged until a briefing session by the Department.


3.3.3          Using Television to present lessons


The Committee supports the idea of recruiting quality teachers in different subjects to present supplementary lessons on specialised television channels to support learners particularly in areas where quality teachers are difficult to attain. The Committee agreed to hold a briefing session with the SABC on the issue of the timing and slotting of these programmes.





3.3.4          Early Childhood Development


The Committee requires a report on the effectiveness of the training and conditions of service of practitioners at registered ECD sites.


3.3.5          Funding


The Committee expects a progress report in measures undertaken to address inconsistencies in the classification of schools and to subsidise parents in expenses related to school uniforms, shoes and stationary.




Department of Basic Education. (2009). Report of the Task Team for the Review of the Implementation of the National Curriculum StatementFinal Report.


Department of Basic Education. (2010a). Statement from the Department of Basic Education: Strengthening Curriculum Implementation, from 2010 and Beyond. Department of Basic Education website.


Department of Basic Education. (2010b). School Realities 2010. Pretoria: Government Printers.


Department of Basic education, (2010c). Action Plan to 2014: Towards the Realisation of Schooling 2025. Government Notice 752 of 2010.


Department of Education, (2002). Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9 Policy, LIFE ORIENTATION. Pretoria: Department of Education.


Department of Education. (2008). Strategic Plan 2008-2012. Pretoria: Department of Education.


Human Sciences Research Council. (2008). Scaling up Early Childhood Development services (0 – 4 years) in South Africa.


South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU). SADTU response to the NEEDU Report: Top heavy on evaluation, light on


Zuma, J. (2011). State of the Nation Address of the President of the Republic of South Africa, Joint Sitting of Parliament. Cape Town, 10 February 2011.


Statistics South Africa. (2009). General Household Survey Interactive Dataset. Pretoria: Stats SA.



Report to be considered.













Annexure 1


Procedure and timelines of the Public Hearings







November 2009

Press Statement issued by Committee calling for written submissions (closing date for submissions – 28 February 2010)



12 May 2010

Oral Hearings Commence:

-          Ukufunda

-          Cape Town Studies and Tours

-          Funda Afrika

-          North West University

-          Mr B Zondi



18 May 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          Westcliff School of Skills

-          Western Cape Primary Science Programme

-          Social Surveys Africa

-          University of Free State

-          Bergville Primary School

-          National Youth Development Agency



19 May 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          Senior Education Specialist (M Jooste)

-          SA Institute for Distance Education

-          Junior Achievement Enterprise

-          Izingane Zethu

-          Lawyers for Human Rights & Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in SA

-          Education Support Services Trust



25 May 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          SA Media

-          Pestalozz1 Trust

-          Mind Lab

-          Textbook Development Institute

-          Mental Health and Poverty Project

-          Equal Education



27 July 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          Leaders in Learning

-          GM South Africa Foundation

-          Education Specialist (S Hajane)

-          Grahamstown Amasango Career School

-          University of the North West



28 July 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          Dr Yusuf Dadoo Primary School

-          Federation of Governing Bodies of South African Schools (FEDSAS)

-          Livingstone Primary School

-          Thandulwazi Saturday School

-          Maths Centre Incorporating Science



29 July 2010

Oral Hearings continued:

-          Faithway Christian School

-          Meredale Primary School

-          Siyahamba Foundation for Academic Excellence

-          Projects Abroad



4 August 2010

Commencement of Consideration of submissions received: BAS.EDU 2 – BAS.EDU 6



5 August 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 7 – BAS.EDU 11



10 August 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 12 – BAS.EDU 19



17 August 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 20 – BAS.EDU 30



24 August 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 31 – BAS.EDU 66



7 September 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 67 – BAS.EDU 74



14 September 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 75 - BAS.EDU 112



15 September 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 114 - BAS.EDU 128



16 September 2010

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 134 - BAS.EDU 150



8 February 2011

Consideration of submissions received continued: BAS.EDU 150 – BAS.EDU 223 Secretariat was asked to incorporate issues raised in these submissions in the draft report








Annexure 2


Submissions were received from the following organisations, stakeholders and individuals:


Mr G Ahrendse (BAS.EDU 2), Ms A Hattingh (BAS.EDU 3), Makwassie Primary School (BAS.EDU 4), Ms I De Beer (BAS.EDU 5), E P Nel (BAS.EDU 6), Mr L Muthimba (BAS.EDU 7), Ms B Brooks (BAS.EDU 8), Ms J Barnard (BAS,.EDU 9), Pambili High School (BAS.EDU 10), Central Primary School (BAS.EDU 11), Mr F McShane (BAS.EDU 12), Equal Education (BAS.EDU 13), Mr N Mostert (BAS.EDU 14), Ms M Janse Van Vuuren (BAS.EDU 15), Prof J Higgins (BAS.EDU 16), Connecting Africa (BAS.EDU 17), Textbook Development Institute (BAS.EDU 18), Mr G Bloch (BAS.EDU 19), Ms E Nyathela (BAS.EDU 20), Awesome SA (BAS.EDU 21), Ms M Van Vuuren (BAS.EDU 22), DAG (BAS.EDU 23), N Du Plessis (BAS.EDU 24), Ms L Hough (BAS.EDU 25), Lee Saunders (BAS.EDU 26), South African Christian Football Association (BAS.EDU 27), Mr C Becker (BAS.EDU 28), Mr C Hugo (BAS.EDU 29), Mr P Snyman (BAS.EDU 30), F Klerck (BAS.EDU 31), Ms D Brown (BAS.EDU 32), Concerned Mom (BAS.EDU 33), Mr P J Pelser (BAS.EDU 34), D A Liebenberg (BAS.EDU 35), Leaders In Learning (BAS.EDU 36), Mr A Kepkey (BAS.EDU 37), Mr C Snell (BAS.EDU 38), Ms D Glendining (BAS.EDU 39), Ms T Nell (BAS.EDU 40), Dr C Herold (BAS.EDU 41), J M Pillai (BAS.EDU 42), Janine (BAS.EDU 43), Gert (BAS.EDU 44), Mr M Matthew (BAS.EDU 45), Louise (BAS.EDU 46), Senzo Ngcobo (BAS.EDU 47), Mr R Matlock (BAS.EDU 48), South African Democratic Teachers Union (SADTU) (BAS.EDU 49), Pretoria West High School (BAS.EDU 50), Transition Software (BAS.EDU 51), Walter Sisulu University (BAS.EDU 52), Mr Ronald Pillay (BAS.EDU 53), Infundo Consulting (BAS.EDU 54), Theocentric Christian Education (BAS.EDU 55), Niko Mgiba (BAS.EDU 56), Mr S Hajane (BAS.EDU 57), Dr M Venter (BAS.EDU 58), M T S Krige (BAS.EDU 59), Rynfield Primary School (BAS.EDU 60), Grahamstown Amasango Career School (BAS.EDU 61), North West University (BAS.EDU 62), Tony Khatle (BAS.EDU 63), Wynberg Boys High School (BAS.EDU 64), Shayandima School of Tomorrow (BAS.EDU 65), Unknown (BAS.EDU 66), Swellendam Primary School (BAS.EDU 67), Sandveld High School (BAS.EDU 68), Goudrif High School (BAS.EDU 69), United Herzlia Schools (BAS.EDU 70), Unknown (BAS.EDU 71), Sameeha Idas (BAS.EDU 72), Edenglen Primary (BAS.EDU 73), Panorama Secondary School (BAS.EDU 74), Dr Yusuf Dadoo Primary School (BAS.EDU 75), A P Pepler (BAS.EDU 76), Liesl Van Der Merwe (BAS.EDU 77 + 78), Mr C Mashikinya (BAS.EDU 79), Liezel Du Toit (BAS.EDU 80), Mr A Verrijdt (BAS.EDU 81), Bhekani Zondi (BAS.EDU 82), Ms A Edwards (BAS.EDU 83), Parktown Boys High School (BAS.EDU 84), Bergville Primary School (BAS.EDU 85), Monument Primary School (BAS.EDU 86), Alliance for Children’s Entitlement to Social Security (BAS.EDU 87), North West University (2) (BAS.EDU 88), Grahamstown Literacy Project (BAS.EDU 89), Accelerated Christian Education (BAS.EDU 90), Dr E Van Zyl (BAS.EDU 91), Joseph Temlett (BAS.EDU 92), A Pepler (2) (BAS.EDU 93), E De Vos (BAS.EDU 94), C O Van Der Rheede (BAS.EDU 95), Shamilla Essaram (BAS.EDU 96), D Aird (BAS.EDU 97), Knysna Primary School (BAS.EDU 98), John Knipe (BAS.EDU 99), John Broster (BAS.EDU 100), Funda Afrika (BAS.EDU 101), Christian Education Deputies (BAS.EDU 102), C Flynn (BAS.EDU 103), Rabboni Christian School (BAS.EDU 104), Cape Town Studies and Tours (BAS.EDU 105), Apostolic Resource Centre (BAS.EDU 106), Leading Home Education Academy (BAS.EDU 107), Lize (BAS.EDU 108), J Baumgardt (BAS.EDU 109), Western Cape Primary Science Programme Trust (BAS.EDU 110), Social Surveys Africa (BAS.EDU 111), Delyse Kay (BAS.EDU 112), Ukufunda (BAS.EDU 113), Isandlwana Technical High School (BAS.EDU 114), Florida School For Skills (BAS.EDU 115), Mr A Makhubedu (BAS.EDU 116), Ros Walters (BAS.EDU 117), Mental Health and Poverty Project (BAS.EDU 118), Hendrick Hahn (BAS.EDU 119), A M Suliman (BAS.EDU 120), Mrs Lynch (BAS.EDU 121), SA Media (BAS.EDU 122), Richard Northmote (BAS.EDU 123), Tshepang Kopano Academy (BAS.EDU 124), Sea Point High School (BAS.EDU 125), Stutterheim High School (BAS.EDU 126), Fish Hoek Primary School (BAS.EDU 127), Cheryl Charles (BAS.EDU 128), Pestalozzi Trust (BAS.EDU 129), Marius Jooste (BAS.EDU 130), Annalie Du Preez (BAS.EDU 131), Marna Bruwer (BAS.EDU 132), South African Institute for Distance Education (BAS.EDU 133), Julie Taylor (BAS.EDU 134), Mrs M Bester (BAS.EDU 135), Governors Alliance (BAS.EDU 136), Parktown High School for Girls (BAS.EDU 137), Junior Achievement South Africa (BAS.EDU 138), Izingane Zethu (BAS.EDU 139), Ntando Mlilo (BAS.EDU 140), Bryandale Primary School (BAS.EDU 141), Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South Africa (BAS.EDU 142), Education Support Services Trust (BAS.EDU 143), Etienne (BAS.EDU 144), Lenasia Muslim School (BAS.EDU 145), G J Kruger (BAS.EDU 146), Federation of Governing Bodies of South African Schools (FEDSAS) (BAS.EDU 147), Mr Roger Graham (BAS.EDU 148), Hakim (BAS.EDU 149), Mrs P Naicker (BAS.EDU 150), Metropolitan Raucall (BAS.EDU 151), Melody Robinson (BAS.EDU 152), MIET Africa (BAS.EDU 153), Fairmount Secondary (BAS.EDU 154), Ms J Seaman (BAS.EDU 155), Wittedrift High School (BAS.EDU 156), Livingstone Primary School (BAS.EDU 157), Thandulwazi Saturday School (BAS.EDU 158), University of Pretoria (BAS.EDU 159), Ms Anne Ward (BAS.EDU 160), Maths Centre (BAS.EDU 161), School Management and Leadership (BAS.EDU 162), Dr Michael Jarvis (BAS.EDU 163), Faithway Christian School (BAS.EDU 164), Verbeeks Education Analyst and School Improvement Specialist (BAS.EDU 165), The Banking Association of South Africa (BAS.EDU 166), Business Unity South Africa (BAS.EDU 167), St Andrews School (BAS.EDU 168), Transition Software (2) (BAS.EDU 169), Mr Louise J Roodt (BAS.EDU 170), Crossmoor Secondary School (BAS.EDU 171), Ms Sarie Mommsen (BAS.EDU 172), Mr Wayne Scullard (BAS.EDU 173), Robert Carruthers School (BAS.EDU 174), Project Abroad (BAS.EDU 175), Meredale Primary School (BAS.EDU 176), Lazarus Muthimba (BAS.EDU 177), Robin Hills Primary School (BAS.EDU 178), Centre of Multigrade Education (BAS.EDU 179), Ms Ruth Motsatsi (BAS.EDU 180), South African Teachers Union (SAOU) (BAS.EDU 181), Ngcono Petro Magwagwa (BAS.EDU 182), Grahamstown Literacy Project (BAS.EDU 183), Victoria Girls High School (BAS.EDU 184), Mulbarton Primary (BAS.EDU 185), Berea Primary School (BAS.EDU 186), Highveld Primary School (BAS.EDU 187), Bishop Bavin St George’s Preparatory School (BAS.EDU 188), Eric Dixie (BAS.EDU 189), Mr Benjamin Hoorn (BAS.EDU 190), Metsimatsho Senior Secondary School (BAS.EDU 191), Centre for Education Policy Development (BAS.EDU 192), Kirstenhof Primary School (BAS.EDU 193), The Way Christian School (BAS.EDU 194), Ms Madge Du Preez (BAS.EDU 195), National Professional Teachers’ Organisation of South Africa (NAPTOSA) (BAS.EDU 196), Johnny (BAS.EDU 197), Mr Johan Snyman (BAS.EDU 198), Tarana Govender (BAS.EDU 199), Kragbron Primary School (BAS.EDU 200), Rhodes University (BAS.EDU 201), Accelerated Christian Education South Africa (BAS.EDU 202), Eric Dixie (BAS.EDU 203), Save our Schools and Community (BAS.EDU 204), Ms Jane Kockott (BAS.EDU 205), Mr R Sempe (BAS.EDU 206), K J Hendricks (BAS.EDU 207), J M Johnstone (BAS.EDU 208), Worried Parent (BAS.EDU 209), PH Moeketsi Agricultural High School (BAS.EDU 210), Ms Joanne Brink (BAS.EDU 211), W K M Mlisana (BAS.EDU 212), Port Shepstone Islamic School (BAS.EDU 213), Freddy (BAS.EDU 214), Cape St Blaize Independent School (BAS.EDU 215), D van Der Spuy (BAS.EDU 216), Faculty of Education (UWC) (BAS.EDU 217), Independent Schools Association of Southern Africa (BAS.EDU 218), Abu Bakr Solomons (BAS.EDU 219), Michelle Kaplan & Marlene Zwick (BAS.EDU 220), Alliance for Children’s Entitlement to Social Security (BAS.EDU 221), Shikinya Africa Outreach Solutions (BAS.EDU 222), Van Kervel School (BAS.EDU 223), Nqundu Combined School (BAS.EDU 224), Westcliffe School of Skills (BAS.EDU 225), siyaJabula siyaKhula (BAS.EDU 226)           






































































[1] Department of Basic Education, 2009

[2] Cape Town Studies and Tours hearings

[3] For example, Metropolitan Raucall submission

[4] Karyn Coetzer submission

[5] Metropolitan Raucall submission

[6] School Management and Leadership submission quoting a respondent t0 its questionnaire.

[7] ibid

[8] Metropolitan Raucall submission

[9] Karyn Coetzer submission; SADTU submission; SAOU submission

[10] For example, Faithway Christian Submission; SADTU submission

[11] Department of Basic Education, 2010a

[12] ibid

[13] UkuFunda submission; Taylor, J. submission

[14] A perusal of the Life Orientation Learning Area Statement indicates that Learning Outcome 2 and its assessment standards require learners to show understanding and appreciation of diverse cultures. This Learning outcome also places emphasis on learners’ demonstration of an understanding and commitment to constitutional rights and responsibilities.

[15] For example, the SADTU submission.

[16] The Banking Association South Africa; Junior Achievement Enterprises oral hearing

[17] Jooste, M submission

[18] ibid

[19] Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission

[20] School Management and Leadership submission quoting a respondent t0 its questionnaire.  

[21] Crossmoor Secondary School submission

[22] ibid

[23] School Management and Leadership submission quoting a respondent to its questionnaire.  

[24] Department of Basic Education, 2010a

[25] Visser, C. (Textbook Development Institute) submission

[26] Ibid

[27] SADTU submission

[28] Visser, C. (Textbook Development Institute) submission

[29] ibid

[30] School Management and Leadership submission quoting a respondent t0 its questionnaire.  

[31] For example, Funda Afrika (incorporating Ukuthula Projects) submission; Westcliff School of Skills submission

[32] Westcliff School of Skills submission; Committee findings of a recent oversight visit to Schools of Skills

[33] For example, Cape Town Studies submission; J Knipe submission; Muthimba, L. submission; SADTU submission

[34] Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission; NAPTOSA submission

[35] Jooste, M. submission 

[36] Ibid; NAPTOSA submission

[37] For example, Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) submission

[38] Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[39] For example, Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission; NAPTOSA submission

[40] Faithway Christian School oral hearing; NAPTOSA submission

[41] School Management and Leadership submission

[42] Department of Basic Education, 2010b.

[43] For example, the NAPTOSA submission; Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission

[44] For example, Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission

[45] Funda Afrika submission

[46] MiET Africa submission

[47] Statistics South Africa, 2009

[48] ibid

[49] Department of Basic Education, 2010c

[50] Equal Education submission; Dr Yusuf Dadoo Primary School submission

[51] Equal Education submission

[52] ibid

[53] For example, Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[54] Budgetary Review and Recommendation Report  of the PC on Basic Education, 2010

[55] Social Surveys Africa submission

[56] School Management and Leadership submission

[57] Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[58] Funda Afrika submission

[59] HSRC, 2008

[60] Thandulwazi Saturday School submission

[61] Nyathela, E. submission

[62] Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[63] ibid

[64] Naidoo, A.(University of Pretoria) submission

[65] Hajane, S. submission

[66] SADTU submission

[67] Cape Town Studies and Tours submission

[68] Grahamstown Amasango Career School submission

[69] ibid

[70] Social Surveys Africa submission

[71] SADTU submission

[72] Ibid

[73] Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwyserunie (SAOU) submission

[74] Ibid


[75] Janse van Vuren, M. submission

[76] Pretorius, M. submission

[77] Becker, C. submission

[78] Steyn, H.J. (University of North West) submission and oral hearing

[79] Liebenberg, D.A. submission

[80] Smith, C. submission

[81] Maths Centre submission

[82] Taylor, J. submission

[83] UkuFunda submission

[84] Uys, C. (University of North West) submission

[85] For example, Naidoo A submission

[86] FEDSAS submission

[87] For example, Faith Christian School submission and oral hearing

[88] For example, the Report of the Ministerial Committee: Schools that Work

[89] For example, Faith Christian School submission and oral hearing

[90] Business Unity South Africa submission

[91] Mommsen, S. submission; Scullard, W. submission

[92] ibid

[93] Brown, D. (Senior Education Specialist) submission

[94] Makhubedu, A. (Educator) submission

[95] Shayandima School of Tomorrow submission

[96] Funda Afrika oral hearing

[97] For example, Isandlwana Technical High School submission

[98]School Management and Leadership submission

[99] For example, Mommsen, S. submission; Pillai, J.M. submission; SADTU submission

[100] SADTU submission

[101] SAOU submission

[102] Ibid

[103] Ibid

[104] Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[105] Zuma, J. 2011

[106] NAPTOSA submission; School Management and Leadership submission

[107] NAPTOSA submission

[108] Magwagwa, N.P. submission

[109]School Management and Leadership submission

[110] Department of Basic Education, 2010d

[111] ibid

[112] For example, Ward, A. submission

[113] Bannatyne, L.J. submission

[114] Projects Abroad Human Rights Office submission

[115] For example, Bergville Primary School submission

[116] Bannatyne, L.J. submission


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