Question NW2685 to the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services

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08 October 2018 - NW2685

Profile picture: Mulaudzi, Adv TE

Mulaudzi, Adv TE to ask the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services

Whether his department has any programmes in place for the rehabilitation of prisoners; if not, why not; if so, what are the relevant details of the programmes offered?


Yes, the Department has rehabilitation programmes for offenders. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, the implementation of Correctional programmes is one of the measures that the Department has in place with the aim to facilitate rehabilitation.

Correctional Programmes are needs-based programmes that address offending behaviour. These programme are non-therapeutic in nature and focus on raising awareness, providing information as well as developing life skills.

Correctional programmes are rendered by Correctional Officials (COs) and offenders who require in-depth therapeutic intervention are referred for specialized services to social workers and psychologists.

The target group for Correctional Programmes is sentenced offenders serving sentences of longer than 24 months. The Programmes are being conducted in line with the offender’s Correctional Sentence Plan.

There are thirteen (13) endorsed Correctional Programmes, namely:


  • Empowering offenders for transition into and adjustment to the correctional centre.
  • The programme enhances their self-awareness; develop their conscience, independent will and creative imagination.
  • It assists them to control and choose their responses to stimuli.
  • It helps them understand and identify the four basic needs of man.
  • It helps them understand the concepts of self-awareness and self-esteem and the common crimes committed in South Africa.
  • It assists them to identify various factors contributing towards criminal behaviour and to understand the implications/ effects of crime. It assists offenders to discover their own role in decision-making and to be able to practice constructive decision-making skills.


  • Raises offender awareness on the causes and symptoms of anger and how to manage anger.
  • Programme assists offenders to unlearn old habits associated with aggression and learn healthy ways of dealing with and expressing anger.


  • Equips offenders with the necessary knowledge and skills to enable them to become responsible, law-abiding and productive citizens in to order to facilitate their successful reintegration into society.
  • Basic behaviour modification techniques are utilized in the programme.


  • Orientate offenders on the Restorative Justice System.
  • Prepare Offenders for involvement in Restorative Justice Programmes.


  • To involve sexual offenders in a correctional programme addressing their sexual offending behaviour, through the acquiring of relevant knowledge (e.g. on biological development) and skills.
  • To assist offenders to identify possible causes to their sexual offending behavior.
  • To empower offenders not to re-offend by compilation of a coping plan for the future.


  • It is aimed at helping offenders whose offending behavior is related to the use of addictive substances, to gain insight into the negative effects of the substances on their well-being.
  • It equips offenders with Information related to substance abuse and the addiction cycle.
  • It assists offenders to know the signs and symptoms of substance addiction.
  • It assists offenders in developing coping skills.
  • It gives them information on how to restore broken relationships.


  • The main objective of this programme is to raise awareness amongst offenders on gang related activities and specifically the negative consequences thereof.
  • The programme empowers offenders with practical skills to change behaviour and cope in a correctional centre without any affiliation to gangs.


  • The programme addresses offending behaviour, specific related to fraud and related offences within a holistic approach.
  • The programme assists offenders to understand the impact of economic crimes on South Africa, the society, their families, as well as on themselves.
  • It gives them understanding of the various offences that fall within the scope of economic crimes.
  • It assists offenders in making ethical decisions in line with the expectations, norms and values of the community.
  • The programme provides the offenders with information on the different theories related to the reasoning behind economic crimes.


  • The programme addresses offending behaviour, specifically related to theft and related offences within a holistic approach.
  • It assists offenders to acquire practical and applicable life skills
  • It gives them an understanding of the link between alcohol, drugs and crime.
  • It assists offenders in making ethical decisions in line with the expectations, norms and values of the community.


  • The programme assists offenders to have a better understanding on what a human being entails.
  • It empowers offenders to break the cycle of violence.
  • It assists offenders in understanding the link between murder and related offences and weapons.
  • The programme assists offenders in understanding emotional intelligence, the importance thereof and how the apply it.
  • The programme assists offenders to implement a personal action plan to change their behaviour and attitudes related to the offence committed.


  • The programme unpacks four theories of human behaviour and the possible links of these theories to the criminal behaviour of the offender.
  • The impact of the crime, the victims of the specific crime as well as the effects of the crime are being addressed.

12. A Correctional Programme for female offenders

The programme was developed specifically for Female offenders is divided into four sub-programmes:

Sub- Programme1 of 4: General Life Skills

  • Explain the role of resilience in emotional health.
  • Encourages woman to appreciate themselves more and able to cope positively with difficult emotions and stressful circumstances.
  • Provides knowledge on how to deal with the mistakes, learn from them and know how to deal with labelling.
  • Helps woman to Know and understand the different techniques to manage behavioral problems of children.
  • Provides knowledge and understanding of parenting goals, understand grants available for children and help them to know the danger of labelling children.
  • Helps woman to recognize a problem and follow the steps involved in problem solving and how to identify barriers in finding the best solution for a problem.

Sub-Programme 2 of 4: Relationships

  • Understand the importance of supportive relationships and positive, true connections in the psychological development of women.
  • Helps female offenders to maintain healthy relationships by identifying the signs and characteristics of a healthy relationship.
  • Promote a better understanding of unhealthy relationships and the impact of domestic violence on women.
  • Provides knowledge on the restoration of family relationships after incarceration.

Sub-Programme 3 of 4: Addictive Behaviour

  • Assist the female offenders to understand the importance of friendship and identify the signs of bad company and bad friendship.
  • Defines Substance Abuse and assist offenders with understanding the symptoms and prognosis of Substance Abuse. Example, ‘Nyaope’ and its negative effects on the society.

Sub-Programme 4 of 4: Career Building

  • Empower offenders with knowledge and skills on career building and planning.
  • Empower them on the importance of setting goals and how to increase their chances for success.
  • Raises awareness on mistakes that people make in goal setting.
  • Provides information on processes that need to be considered in Job hunting like Curriculum vitae and preparation for the interview.
  • Knowledge of cutting expenses and getting out of debt are the main factors of personal finance.


  • Prepare offenders for successful reintegration.
  • Teaching of skills to overcome difficulties associated with reintegration.
  • Ensure that proper support systems are in place before placement.
  • Provision of information about external resources.
  • Assist with the restoration of relationships.
  • Teach offenders to take responsibility for their own behavior.
  • Assistance with the building of the self-esteem and self-confidence.
  • Provision of information on the prevention of re-offending and relapse.

In order to addresses the specific needs of youth offenders, (4) four of the Correctional Programmes have been amended with sound effects and animations in an attempt to ensure the involvement and interest of this category of offenders.


  • Anger Management Programme

It is the programme that is aimed at assisting offenders to develop insight into their behavioral patterns in order to manage their violent and aggressive behavior.

  • Sexual Offender Treatment Programme

The programme utilizes the cognitive behaviour approach which focuses on increasing offenders’ self-control over their offending behaviour.

  • Substance Abuse Programme

It is aimed at targeting behavioral, psychological and emotional symptoms of drug and substance abuse as well as preventing relapses.

  • Substance Abuse Programme

It is aimed at targeting behavioral, psychological and emotional symptoms of drug and substance abuse as well as preventing relapses.

  • Youth Resilience Enhancement Programme

Focuses on empowering youth offenders with skills resilience and attitude to beat the odds whilst inculcating habits geared towards exploitation of all available self-development opportunities

  • Cool and Fit for Life (Youth Programme)

It is aimed at empowering young offenders to make informed decision by developing their interpersonal skills.

  • Elderly Offender Programme

It is aimed at empowering elderly offenders to recognize the skills and wisdom that they have and encourage them to impart such wisdom to the coming generations and help prepare them for successful reintegration into society

  • Sisonke Family and Marriage Care Programme

The programme intends to improve, strengthen and maintain family relationships.

  • Parenting Skills Programme

The programme intends to improve parental relationship skills between offenders and their children and also to equip them with various disciplinary mechanisms.


  • Anger management programme

The programme grants the participants opportunity and the ability to identify and solve problems that trigger anger. Participants are empowered on responsible decision making using critical and creative thinking towards the control of anger. They gain knowledge on how emotions and anger relate to one another as well as appropriate and inappropriate anger. They are also skilled on how to manage anger and enhance personal effectiveness together with self-management.

  • Pre-release programme

This programme aims to guide and empower participants to personal development by helping in these areas: applied basic personal values and ethics. Having Realistic Expectations, Having a check on Friends’ Influence, Meeting and Coping with Resistance, Restoring family relationships, Taking the offender back into the community, Starting afresh, Bringing the offender into a contact with a Spiritual leader.

  • Family firm foundation

The programme unlocks individual historical family background enhancing the participants’ basic understanding of family concepts. It informs participants about a family as a major social institution and focuses on a person’s social activities. It gives the participant an understanding of; the responsibilities that individuals have, the household financial management and daily operations. After completing this programme the participant will be able to accept and appreciate that he/she has a family and know his/her worth to that family. The participant will identify his/her roles and responsibilities in a family.

  • Igugulethu our treasure

Through this programme participants gain knowledge and skills in communication, managing conflict in relationships, personal restoration, emotional stability, personal well-being, social reintegration and how to lead a fulfilling life.

  • Self-image

This programme provides six steps to a better self. Scriptures which focus on self-image are quoted and utilised to help in understanding factors which have to do with physical self-concept, personal concept, and concept of family, friends and self-concept, religious self-concept.

  • Heartlines programmes

Heartlines programmes help one to have a deeper understanding of the common eight values, namely, grace, forgiveness, compassion, acceptance, responsibility, perseverance, honesty and self-control. The Heartlines Values and Money programme targets both officials and inmates especially those who have committed economic offences. These programmes challenge participants to live out the values and they also prepare them for a smooth social integration process.

  • Combating HIV & AIDS through spiritual and ethical conduct (chatsec) programme

The programme is about preventing HIV in the Department of Correctional Services. It focuses on ten key areas which include, capacity counselling and testing, prevention of occupational exposure, health management of sexually transmitted diseases and others.

  • Phomolo life steps

The programme is aimed at equipping the participant with; Spiritual wellness, ability to identify problems, life orientation, personal growth and development, Personal Life Toolkit, Emotions, Behaviour and Character. It helps participants to work effectively with others as members of a team, group, body and community.

  • Pitso-imbizo reconciliation

The programme educates the participants on how to deal with guilt, how to forgive, acceptance of self and others, the impact of fear of rejection, the significance of commitment and determination. It also educates participants on how one can restore self-worth, relationships, trust and hope.


Formal Education offer the following programmes:

  • Pre-Literacy (for those who are illiterate): This programme is offered for offenders who cannot read or write
  • Adult Education and Training (AET) Levels 1-4: This is equivalent to Grades 1-9 in normal mainstream education and it’s for offenders who want to pursue studies in the General Education and Training (GET) Band.

Further Education and Training (FET): Grades 10-12. All those offenders that have successfully completed the above-mentioned programme get an opportunity to pursue studies in the FET Band following a curriculum known as Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS), similar to all external schools within the education system of the country.

Higher Education and Training (HET): After completing their Grade 12 qualification, offenders are afforded an opportunity to advance their education through distant education. In this instance, they are assisted with registration at various institutions of higher learning at their own cost.

Computer Based Training: This programme is offered to promote computer based learning among youth centres and is offered in designated Computer Based Training Centres (CBT) where we offer basic Computer Literacy as well as the advanced International Computer Driver’s License (ICDL).


Skills Development programmes are offered to offenders as per need registered in their respective Sentence Plans: Offenders who, during the assessment process indicate their need to be skilled and to further their education during their incarceration are offered the following skills programmes:

  • Skills training:
  • Entrepreneurial training;
  • Vocational and Occupational training (these programmes are available up to Artisan level).
  • TVET College programmes:
  • Engineering Studies: N1 to N6;
  • Business Studies: N4 to N6;
  • National Certificate Vocational [NC(V)] Level 2 - 4.

The entry requirement for placement in these programmes is Grade 9/ Standard 7 or Adult Education and Training (AET) level 4.


The Department has twenty-one (21) farms and one-hundred and fifteen (115) small agriculture sites, as well as nineteen (19) textile workshops, ten (10) wood and ten (10) steel workshops, nine (9) bakeries and one (1) shoe factory.

The production workshops and agricultural activities promote the transfer of skills to offenders by complementing skills development rehabilitation programmes and improving their personal and social functioning (i.e. work ethics) by providing them with skills utilization and skills development opportunities. The products generated/manufactured/produced in the process, are used for self-sufficiency and to ultimately reduce Government expenditure.

The below table illustrates on average offender labour per day at agriculture and production workshops:

Production Workshop and Agriculture

















Production Workshops

1 693

1 608

1 515

1 690

1 690

1 817

1 765

1 547


2 906

3 215

3 110

3 281

3 276

3 108

3 268

3 308

Development opportunities in Agriculture:

Item No.

Type of Enterprise/ activities


Vegetable production (21 farms and 115 small sites)


Fruit production (13 farms)


Milk production (17 farms)


Red meat production - Beefers (19 farms)

- Small stock (5 farms)


Poultry- broilers (3 farms) and layers (7 farms)


Abattoirs: Red meat (17 farms) and white meat (3 chicken farms)


Piggeries (15 farms)

Development opportunities in Production Workshops:

Item No.

Type of Facility

Products range

Trades / Activities


Wood Production

(10 workshops).

  • Office Furniture Products.
  • School equipment.
  • Recreational equipment.
  • Various wood products.
  • Repair/rehabilitation of office furniture & wood products.
  • Cabinet making.
  • Wood machining.
  • Upholstery.
  • Furniture polishing.

Steel Production

(10 workshops).

  • Security equipment.
  • Cell equipment.
  • Kitchen and dining equipment.
  • Rehabilitation of steel equipment.
  • Agriculture equipment.
  • Various steel products.
  • Welding.
  • Plate metal work.
  • Fitting & turning.
  • Spray painting and powder coating.
  • Sign-writing
  • Jig tool and die making

Textile Production

(19 workshops).

  • Offender uniform.
  • Offender bedding.
  • Various products, i.e. property bags.
  • Garment manufacturing.


(9 bakeries).

  • Bread
  • Craft bread baking.

Shoe factory

(1 shoe factory).

  • Offender Shoes (male)
  • Shoe manufacturing.

Prison Locks –manufacturing workshop

  • Prison locks, locks for courts, South African Police Services and Mental Institutions (for Department of Health).
  • Locksmith

Printing workshops

  • Printing of the signage.
  • Graphic Designer


Sport, Recreation, Arts, Culture & Library programmes and services are provisioned in such a manner that they add value to lives of participants and are central to the Rehabilitation Plan of each offender in order to assist them to re-order their lives in a positive manner, taking their social economic and cultural background into account.

The SRAC national programmes are structured and coordinated to be geared towards building and supporting self sufficiency and necessary for reducing the likelihood of offenders becoming involved in criminal activities again. This is done through partnership with Departments of Arts and Culture, Sport and Recreation, Sports Federations and NGOs e.g. Libraries: Library, Library Education Programmes.

The following are the National Projects for 2018/19 Financial Year:

  • Training of male and female offenders on Beadwork and Recycle Project is currently being rolled –out in all the Regions, as part of skills development programme that will contribute positively to their Social Economic and Cultural background. There are more than (± 2 250 trained elderly male and female offenders nationally).
  • Funda Mzantsi Project: This annual programme is aimed at encouraging offenders to develop appreciation and knowledge through reading of books, reviewing, provide analysis and engage in constructive debates on topical issues. The project is in partnership with the Centre for the Book (CFB) a branch of the National Library in the DAC. Offender participation in this programme starts at the Correctional Centre Level, Management Area Level, proceeds to Regional Level and lastly to the National Championships where talents are showcased at a National platform.
  • 67 Blankets for Nelson Mandela Day. The project profiled offender programmes of rehabilitation for re-integration in front of millions of South Africans:
  • The project is a partnership between the Department of Correctional Services and 67 Blankets for Nelson Mandela Day and has yielded DCS great results since its inception in 2015, it is important to mention that it has placed DCS in the Guinness World Records in 2016 by creating the largest crocheted blanket measuring 17 181 m2.
  • The main aim of the project is to ensure that offenders are given the opportunity to reach out to communities outside of prison walls. By hand-making blankets that are donated to 67 Blankets for Nelson Mandela Day, the offenders are afforded an opportunity to make a huge difference in the lives of those living in poverty stricken circumstances.
  • This project is also focussing at skilling offenders, enabling them to realize their full creative potential through nurturing their creativity, expression and innovation. Provide a tool for offender development and to prepare them for their reintegration back to the community.
  • The Massive Mandela Masterpiece (MMM) started in 2017 and 45 Management Areas participated in the project. This project was in line with Madiba’s centenary which is celebrated in 2018, which bears Madiba’s face and could only be seen from the sky due to its size. 67 Blankets provided cameras and screens to enable proper viewing by the audience. The programme saw inmates knitting their way to ensure that DCS is once again put on the World Map. The final product measured ±8000m² and was revealed at Zonderwater Correctional Centre, sports field on 24/04/2018 for the World to view.

Ongoing Crime Prevention Programme: Stories behind bars

Individual and group talents were discovered through a coordinated drama performance by female offenders on a story-line “Stories behind bars”. The outcome of this programme based on the partnership is to expose talent and educate communities on crime prevention, through Grahamstown Arts Festival and Pretoria State Theatre.

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