SAPS Training Programme & Recruitment Moratorium: Report

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10 June 1998
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Meeting Summary

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Meeting report


10 June 1998

Documents handed out:
Briefing outline: Leadership And Affirmative Training (Appendix 1)
Information note: Progress on the Lifting of the Moratorium on Enlistments (Appendix 2)
Information note: Promotion Policy - South African Police Service(Appendix 3)

Chief Director, Mr C Botha, Head: Management Development (SAPS) reported on this topic. See his briefing document.

Divisional Commissioner: Human Resources Management, Mr C Steenkamp, stated that the moratorium on recruitment had been lifted and recruitment had already started. The intake so far has been 19% Whites and 81% Blacks. There are still huge gender disparities in terms of numbers. Most females are found in administrative positions. The average age of the recruits is 28 years which means they are mature. Those that do not meet set standards during periodic evaluation will be dismissed.

The interim promotion policy is currently being followed until the final policy is in place on 1 August 1998. In terms of the Interim promotion policy, automatic promotion has been discarded. Clear criteria are set with all posts being advertised and all candidates will be properly evaluated . Qualifications will not be the sole determinant but competency as well.

There was no discussion by the committee members after the briefing owing to time constraints. Discussion was deferred until the next meeting which will take place during recess on Bloemfontein. The date has not been confirmed.

Annexure 1:

By Chief Director C J Botha, Head: Management Development, South
African Police Service

On Wednesday, 10 June 1998

This document deals with the request by the Portfolio Committee on Safety and Security for briefing and information on leadership training and affirmative training. The document serves as air outline for the briefing, enabling members of the Committee to obtain prior knowledge on the issues concerned.

According to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108/1996) and the Police Service Act (Act 68/1995), the National Commissioner of the South African Police Service (SAPS) is responsible for the development of human resources in the SAPS.

The National Commissioner exercises this responsibility through his line managers on ground level (regarding responsibility for development) and his Human Resources Division (in terms of satisfying the developmental needs).

The three training components (Basic Training, In Service and Specialised Training and Management Development), situated in the Human Resources Division (HRM), have adopted the following vision:
Our vision is one of an education, training and development system within the integrated Human Resources framework of the SAP$
it is people-centred, provides life-long learning and enables the Service to meet the safety and security needs of the community.

Subsequently, a policy on human resources training and development has been formulated around the principles of occupational specific, post specific, modular interventions, based on competencies and outcomes. This policy specifically addresses issues such as equal access to interventions and acceleration of efforts to redress past unfair discrimination.

Following this, a strategy on training and development in the SAPS has been forwarded upwards as a discussion document. This strategy has been designed within the ambits of community policing, and expounds the concepts of Expected Police Service (EPS) and Specialised Police Service (SPS) within a paradigm of service delivery.

It then became necessary for Management Development, as an identifiable sub-component of training within the HRM Division, to develop its own strategy for dealing with the managerial developmental needs in the Service.

Several workshops were held over the period 1997-09-22 to 1997-10-08. The purpose was to diagnose the present situation, identify possible dysfunctions and generate a desired future state of affairs acceptable to all role players regarding management development, both inside and outside of the Service. All internal role players, that is, people working in the field of management development in the Service, were involved at the workshops.

The following issues may be seen as the basis for further developments:
The following concept vision was formulated for Management Development:
The development of leadership within a visionary, learning Service to ensure the safety and security of all in South Africa.

The vision takes cognisance of the relationship between management and leadership in modern organisations and led to a proposal that the name of the sub-component be changed to Leadership Development. The latter was in principle approved by the National Commissioner on 11 March 1998, but is subject to the recommendations of a team currently investigating the restructuring of Head Office.

The following mission statement was developed:

We develop visionary leaders and competent managers by means of learning interventions which foster knowledge, skills and attitudes enabling the Service to create a safe and secure environment.

During the workshops the following tentative (concept) values were identified, but need to be further explored to arrive at a shared value system:
- personal development is paramount
- create a people-centred environment through mutual respect
- establish quality relationships and networks
- satisfy client needs.

The following focus areas have been identified:
1.1 Reposition Management Development to Leadership Development
1.2 Functional Purification: the relationship between Leadership Development and In Service and Specialised Training, focussing on the development of leadership and not on functional training.
1.3 A thorough development needs analysis: In order to accomplish the vision, it will be necessary to do an in-depth analysis of training needs in the provinces.
1.4 Establish joint ventures and linkages with NQF and SAQA
1.5 Communication within the Training Environment
1.6 Guardian Committee: In order to optimise the functioning of the Guardian Committee, the structuring thereof must be investigated.
1.7 Develop Trainer Competencies: Trainer competencies must be evaluated and developed in terms of; inter alia, adult learning skills, knowledge, skills and attitudes.

2.1 What is the core business of Leadership Development?
The sub component Leadership Development is responsible for the development of leaders and managers, primarily above the level of supervisor. For purposes of developmental interventions, the relationship between management and leadership may be illustrated as follows:

Supervisory level is defined as follows:
- A supervisor is knowledgeable in the specific functional duties that he I she
deals with on a daily basis
- she/he supervises the fulfillment of functional duties within the specific functional structure
- learning on supervisory level takes place primarily on the functional skills level
- the training of the supervisor consequently is primarily the task of the sub component In Service and Specialised training
- supervision, however, implies certain relatively restricted leadership and managerial skills
- a very specific working relationship between the sub components In Service and Specialised Training and Leadership Development is therefor a given
- supervisory level stretches over the dichotomous human resources reality:
the following serves as an example
Inspector HAC (and comparable PAS)
Sergeant SAC (and comparable PAS)

Main responsibility/reason for existence for Leadership Development:
Visionary, political-normative policing thinking.
Creates frameworks for determining policy and strategy.
Creating and maintaining a learning organisation.

Senior level
Create policing strategy.
Leading and managing of middle level.

Middle level
Interpret policing strategy.
Leading and managing operational level.

Operational level
Manage operational duties.
Execute policing strategy.


2.2 How do we intend delivering on our core business?
The current reality was that Management Development could not execute the role defined in the previous paragraph. The reasons were that we were forced, due to organisational imperatives, to design and deliver on leadership development, management development and functional skills for commissioned officers (the latter is defined in section 33 of the Police Service Act 68/1995). The latter is the domain of In Service and Specialised Training. When combining leadership and management levels with current interventions ( see diagram underneath), one may identify the following additional dysfunctions:

- no assessment of management and leadership competencies
- no prior learning assessment, no portability, different entry level requirements on the same programmes
- no real distinction between leadership and management posts and the rank structure
- a dual system of development covering both backlog (management development was stopped in 1994) and an ideal bottom-up development programme. This dysfunction will continue to exist. Therefore a dual system of leadership development, developing leaders both for posts already appointed in and to be appointed in, will have to be followed for some years to come.

These dysfunctions restricted this sub-component's movement towards the ideal leadership development programme. Management Development would, however, not abdicate its commitment to a holistic training and development programme for the Service as a whole. Therefor, it would strive to establish a relationship with In Service and Specialised Training regarding capacity building in the latter component and role definition.

Top Leadership
Leadership Development Programme (LDP) I, II and III In process of negotiation with top management: Principle Centred Leadership, specific needs (colloquiums) and summaries of the latest leadership publications.

Senior level
Some reached by the Station Management Programme (SMP), delivered by the Jupmet group of universities.
Some ad hoc interventions on provincial level

Middle level
The Danish - SAPS development programme
Accelerated Management Development Programme (AMDP)

Operational level
Operational Management Programme for Officers (OMP-O)
Operational Management Course I and II (OMC 1 & II) Danish-SAPS development programme
Swedish - SAPS capacity building programme

Entry level management programme (pilot on 7 June 1998)

Against the background of the paragraphs above, a logical leadership development programme could be the following
TLP = Top Leadership Programme
LP = Leadership Programme
MMP = Middle Management Programme
OMP = Operational Management Programme

The suggested ideal programme possesses the inherent advantages of
- progression in development
- minimalising rank vs post tension eliminating a separate AMDP
- proactive development for leadership and managerial posts with the emphasis on affirmative development
- support for career planning policy
- support for a personnel evaluation policy
- resulting in a safe and secure environment through a learning policing organisation made up of visionary leaders and competent managers.

2.3 Methodology
It stands to reason that new products will adhere to the principles in the training policy, that is, occupational specific, post specific, modular, competency and outcomes based, in line with the approved process of developing interventions.

As far as current products are concerned, the following:
Product and Strategy
Leadership Development retains leadership and managerial skills and neutral skills, except where these themes are addressed in other programmes in a concentrated manner. The rest of the Programme will be cascaded, in consultation, to In Service and Specialised Training through a systematic programme. Examples are functional skills, aspects relating to Ubunye, diversity

Status Quo - finish by the end of 1998 as planned (status then the same as OMP-O)

Programme to be utilised in TLP and LP.

Jupmet - advance as planned.
Functional skills to be cascaded to In Service and Specialised Training in consultation and as capacity is built. Management of Human Behaviour stays with Leadership Development.

Continues as planned - evaluate principle of cascading as being tested in this programme.

Currently delivered in the Northern Cape: cascade to the other eight provinces, possibly with further Swedish assistance.

2.4 Resources
Certain principles are being investigated, namely
- cascading to other training institutions: the Centres of Excellence idea.
- decentralisation - the operational head office (in line with current departmental imperatives)
- the responsibility for development of human resources
- out sourcing
- investigating true internal personnel needs for training and development.
- taking learning tot the learner, thereby reaching more learners and cutting costs of running large colleges

A logical consequence of the above is a role clarification between the different sub-components within Training. Although, as mentioned previously, this role clarification has been approved in principle by the National Commissioner on 11 March 1998, it is still subject to the outcomes of the restructuring investigation.
3.1 Basic Training is responsible for delivering the approved formal programme to all newcomers to the Service. This includes induction programmes for lateral entrants.
3.2 In Service and Specialised Training is responsible for all functional skills training. The imperatives of this approach will be discussed in detail during the briefing.
3.3 Leadership Development will in future consequently not be responsible for the training of the officer group (commissioned officers in terms of the Police Service Act 68/1995, section 33) in functional skills. Rather, it will concentrate on developing visionary leadership and competent managers. This approach, supported by graphs indicating the relationships, will also be detailed during the briefing. The Committee will also be briefed extensively on the various programmes available.

4.1 Finances
Severe financial constraints have forced Management Development to find creative ways of financing its programmes. To this end, sponsorships from both internal and external donors amount to approximately R 30 million, although a major part of this figure (R17 million for the Station Management Programme funded by the European Union through the South African Management Development Institute) has not been confirmed yet.

4.2 Human Resources
Management Development functions with 50 trainers I facilitators in three training centres situated at Graaff-Reinet (the former SA Police Academy), Paarl and Pretoria. In an organisation the size of the SAPS, more trainers are urgently needed. However, this issue is also dependent upon the results of the restructuring investigation.

4.3 Facilities
The centres at Graaff-Reinet and Paarl are large and relatively well-equipped, although not always conducive to an adult learning environment since they were designed in another era for the purposes that were applicable then. A major source for concern is the amount of money spend on supporting the facilities, thereby reducing the amount available for the core business, namely the developmental interventions.

4.4 Learner numbers
Within the constraints as indicated above, the sub-component has since 1 April 1996, exposed the following number of learners to the programmes as indicated:
Operational Management Programmes: 2627
Middle Management Programmes: 75
Leadership Programme: 200
Top Leadership Programme: 20
Station Management Programme: 256
Danish-SAPS Management Development Programme: 96
Swedish Capacity Building Programme: 150

4.4 The Management Development Research Team
Considerable results have already been achieved. To sustain these results and build further capacity for the SAPS, a research team is currently evaluating the sub-component as a unit. The team is funded by the Royal Danish Government and consists of Superintendent K Tabor (Royal Danish Police School), Me J Klipin (Public and Development Management School, Witwatersrand University) and Superintendent J Carstens (SAPS). In broad terms the terms will shortly report on inter alia

the impact of our programmes upon service delivery
* financial issues, including cost-effectiveness and out sourcing
* delivery methodology
* the viability of a police management resource centre.

Flowing from the original Representivity and Equal Opportunity Programme, a unique learning intervention has been designed and will be delivered by the Kagiso Leadership School pending funding from the European Union. This programme is interactive, work-based and project centred, will be delivered country-wide and will employ an internal support team consisting of the Equity Managers, Provincial Training Managers and the line managers of the learners. Latest expectations are that funding will become available towards the end of the year with delivery commencing early in 1999. This intervention is highly intensive and will serve as an accelerated management development programme

Employee Development and Affirmative Training
The goal of focus area five - Employee Development and Affirmative Training - is to continuously develop all employees and to eradicate disparities in skill levels. To achieve this goal two functional objectives have been set namely:
1) To present courses that will improve the skills of inadequately trained employees
2) To present post specific courses
The training and development interventions developed to ensure that employees are competent and comply with the requirements of the specific post can be divided into functional (policing) skills and supporting skills. A number of interventions were developed and are currently presented to address the need.

The following are presented:
1.1 Basic training for Police Assistants
1.2 Basic Training for Non-statutory Members of VIP Protection Services
1.3. Public Order Policing
1.4 Border Control
1.5 Front Line Personnel (Computer Systems)
1.6 The Presidential Project Team Training (Eastern Cape)
1.7 Basic Functional Skills for members of the former Bophuthatswana Police
1.8 Field Training Officers
1.9 SWAT (Special Weapons and Techniques Training)
1.10 Course for the Community Service Centre Manager, Relief Commander and Ward Commander
1.11 Mechanical Training
1.12 Radio Technical training
1.13 Detective training

The following were developed and are presented:
2.1 Adult Basic Education and Training
2.2 K 53 Driver Training
2.3 Diversity
2.4 Community Policing
2.5 Human Rights
2.6 Ubunye (Vision, mission and values of the SAPS)
2.7 Victim Support

Annexure 2:
1. Since the announcement by the Minister for Safety and Security on the lifting of the moratorium on 22 May 1997, posts were advertised for the enlistments of 2730 entry level constables, certain re-enlistments of former police officers as well as 1766 posts for the enlistment of Public Service Act personnel at the Key Service Providers. Due to budget constraints the 2730 posts for entry level constables were reduced to 1200.

2. A total of 151 former police officers were re-enlisted since the lifting of the moratorium.

3. The shortlists of applicants for enlistment as entry level constables were finalized and the first group of 300 applicants were enlisted on 1 June 1998 at the Training College, Pretoria. It is envisaged that the second, third and fourth groups of 300 applicants will be enlisted on 1 August 1998, 1 October 1998 and 1 December 1998.

4. The enlistment of Public Service Act personnel for the Key Service Providers was delayed till 1 April 1998 due to budget constraints. 278 Public Service Act personnel were enlisted since 1 April 1998 and the appointment of a further 1421 is in progress.

5. Since the lifting of the moratorium and the above-mentioned enlistments, critical Public Service Act personnel posts are also continuously filled on a ad-hoc basis.


Annexure 3:
1. After negotiations with employee organizations, the Interim Promotion policy was approved by the Minister for Safety and Security in 1995. This policy was followed from 1 September 1994 to 30 June 1996.

2. A new promotion policy is being developed. The transformation process in the Public Service and the implementation of the CORE system (Code of Remuneration) will have an effect on the promotion measures and provisions. In view of these factors and after negotiations with the employee organizations, the Minister was requested to extend the Interim Promotion Policy until the CORE system is implemented in 1998.

3. The promotion of members are currently being considered in terms of the Interim Promotion Policy until the new policy is approved.



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