UNICEF Workshop on Children and Development

Social Development

19 March 1998
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Meeting Summary

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Meeting report

PORFOLIO COMMITTEE ON WELFARE

WELFARE PORFOLIO COMMITTEE
20 March 1998
UNICEF WORKSHOP ON CHILDREN AND DEVELOPMENT

The workshop was organised by UNICEF, the Department of Welfare and Population Development and the Portfolio Committee on Welfare and was opened by the Minister of Welfare and Population Development, Ms Fraser-Moleketi. She summarised the agenda which looked at educational, health and social services for children.


Professor Karl-Eric Knutsson gave a talk on "Why the Best Interest of the Child is Also the Best Interest of Society". He said that there were two billion children in the world. In the Constitution of South Africa (1996) the rights of children were enshrined, but when it came to implementing those rights, no resources existed to do so. Professor Knuttson went on to say that children’s best interests equalled society’s best interests. If children were not looked after, the wider society would have to carry the financial burden of this neglect.

Ingrid Le Roux and a panel from Philani Nutrition Centre spoke on the Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Child Health and Nutrition. She said that one in four children were malnourished, one in eight children were underweight and one in three children lacked Vitamin A. A 1994 survey of Khayelitsha revealed that 12 000 children were underweight and 25 000 children were stunted. Half the children in the country went hungry. She spoke of "unempowerable households" which consist of a grandmother and small children. The elements relating to nutritive promotion were: advocacy, public education and legislation. It was added that the conditions for ending malnutrition exist in South Africa.

The rest of the workshop was not monitored.

Document handed out:
National Programme of Action for Children in South Africa:
Framework
31 May 1996

PREFACE
At the 1990 United Nations World Summit for Children, over one hundred and fifty-nine countries pledged to enhance the survival, protection and development of millions of children throughout the world. South Africa adopted these goals for its own children and, in June 1995, ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The CRC is an internationally endorsed set of fundamental rights for all children.

These events marked a major step forward in the Government of National Unity's commitment toward improving the well-being of children in South Africa.

This framework for the National Programme of Action outlines the actions that South Africa will take to implement its commitment to children

If you wish to comment on the framework, or would like to make a contribution to the National Programme of Action, please contact:

Dr G Mtshali
Chairperson; National Programme of Action Steering Committee
Department of Health
Private Bag X828
0001 Pretoria
Telephone: (012) 312-0097; fax: (012) 312-6266.

CONTENTS
1 Introduction
2 The current situation of children
3 The Action Programme framework and its components
4 Nutrition
5 Child and maternal health
6 Water and sanitation
7 Early childhood and basic education
8 Social welfare development (family environment, out-of-home care and social security)
9 Leisure and cultural activities
10 Child protection measures
11 General measures for implementing and sustaining commitment to the NPA
12 Conclusion
13 Summary of sectors responsible for implementing the NPA
Appendices
Appendix A: Articles in the Convention on the Rights of the Child
relevant to each government department
Appendix B: Members of the National Programme of Action Steering Committee

INTRODUCTION
On June 16 1995, the South African Government of National Unity ratified the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). In so doing, it committed South Africa to implementing the principle of a "first call for children" whereby the needs of children are considered paramount throughout the government's programmes, services and development strategies. This principle was adopted by the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) and is the basis of South Africa's commitments to children.

The National Programme of Action (NPA) is the instrument by which these commitments to children are being carried out. It is a mechanism for identifying all plans for children developed by government departments, non-governmental organisations and other child-related structures, and for ensuring that all these plans converge in the framework provided by the CRC, the goals of the 1990 World Summit for Children, and the Reconstruction and Development Programme.

In April 1996, the Cabinet approved the NPA framework and its implementation by the relevant ministries and departments. The NPA framework is not a separate plan for children: it is an integration of all the policies and plans developed by government departments and non-governmental organisations to promote the well-being of children.

CURRENT SITUATION OF CHILDREN
The 1990 World Summit for Children set specific goals for the survival, protection and development of the world's children.

WORLD SUMMIT FOR CHILDREN: SOCIAL GOALS FOR THE YEAR 2000
1. One-third reduction in 1990 under-five death rates (or to 70 per 1 000 live births, whichever is less)
2. Halving of 1990 maternal mortality rates
3. Halving of 1990 rates of malnutrition among under-fives (to include the elimination of micronutrient deficiencies, support for breast-feeding, and reduction in the incidence of low birth weight to less than 10%)
4. The achievement of 90% immunisation among under-ones, the eradication of polio, the elimination of neonatal tetanus, a 90% reduction in measles cases, and a 95% reduction in measles deaths (compared to pre-immunisation levels)
5. Halving of child deaths caused by diarrhoeal disease
6. One-third reduction in child deaths from acute respiratory infections
7 Basic education for all children and completion of primary education by at least 80% - girls as well as boys
8 Clean water and safe sanitation for all communities
9 Acceptance in all countries of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, including improved protection for children in especially difficult circumstances
10. Universal access to high-quality family planning information and services in order to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late, or too many.

In many areas, significant improvements must be made in the status of South African children in order to reach these goals by the year 2000. Accurate national data are not available to describe all components of the current status of children's well-being and this is another site for improvement.

Many governmental and non-governmental services, programmes and groups are concerned with improving the well-being of South African children.

Within the national government, an Interministerial Core Group has been appointed by the Cabinet to oversee the process of the National Programme of Action for Children. A National Steering Committee comprising Directors-General of the seven appointed ministries, the National Committee for the Rights of Children (NCRC), and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has been established to oversee co-ordination, implementation and monitoring of the National Programme of Action (NPA) and to ensure that it accords with the commitments of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

In addition, several of the Presidential Lead Programmes of the Reconstruction and Development Programme focus on children and include programmes for rural and urban renewal and human resource development and - more specifically - for the promotion of the health, education, welfare and protection of children.

Within the non-governmental sector, there are numerous organisations, networks, alliances and community development institutions that dedicate their work to improving children's lives.

THE ACTION PROGRAMME FRAMEWORK AND ITS COMPONENTS
The policy priorities adopted by the Steering Committee for the National Programme of Action for Children in South Africa are:

POLICY PRIORITIES FOR CHILDREN
· NUTRITION
· CHILD HEALTH
· WATER AND SANITATION
· EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND BASIC EDUCATION
· SOCIAL WELFARE DEVELOPMENT
(FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, OUT-OF-HOME CARE AND SOCIAL SECURITY)
· LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
· CHILD PROTECTION MEASURES

These are the policy areas on which the country's progress in meeting the mandates of the CRC will be reported. They also provide a child-centred focus by which all government departments are able to identify their commitments to promoting specific policies for children.

Within each of these policy areas, special attention will be paid to the needs of children living in difficult circumstances, or with special needs, such as children who are homeless, living in poverty, abused, orphaned, disabled, have chronic illnesses or are the victims of violence.

For each policy area, implementation of the NPA will be guided by the following specific components:

COMPONENTS TO GUIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NPA BY AREAS OF
POLICY

I. Goals (some of which reflect World Summit Goals for the Year 2000)
II. Relevant articles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
III. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
IV. National strategies
V. Measurable targets for achievement
VI. Indicators
VII. Estimated resource requirements (personnel, facilities, finance)
VIII. Sources to be mobilised
IX. Monitoring plan

Sources to be mobilised include the Treasury, donor funding, and the private sector. A mechanism for re-prioritising sectoral activities to focus on resources for children is also being considered. The monitoring plan will include baseline data, indicators, plans for regular and timely collection, analysis and publication of data, and consideration of constraints.

In this framework, a summary of national goals, relevant CRC articles, responsible lead and supporting sectors, and national strategies within the priority policy areas are presented. Identification of relevant resource requirements, resource mobilisation strategies and a monitoring plan will be the responsibility of each of the respective sectors.

Provincial plans of action based on provincial needs and resources have also been developed in accordance with this framework.

NUTRITION
I. Goals
1. Reduction in severe, as well as moderate malnutrition among children under five to half of 1990 levels
2. Reduction of the rate of low birth weight rate (2,5 kg or less) to less than 10%
3. Reduction of iron deficiency anaemia in women by one third of the 1990 levels
4. Virtual elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by 1995
5. Virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences
6. Empowerment of all women to breast-feed their children exclusively for four to six months and to continue breast-feeding, with complementary food, well into the second year
7. Growth promotion and its regular monitoring to be institutionalised in all countries by the end of the 1990s
8. Ensurance that 75% of all maternity hospitals are "mother- and baby-friendly"
9. Ensurance that all household members, regardless of age and gender, have adequate access to food to cover their basic nutrient needs.

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 3: Best interests of the child
Article 6: Survival and development
Article 17: Access to appropriate information and materials (especially those aimed at the promotion of physical and mental health)
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 24: Access to health and health services
Article 26: Social security
Article 27: Standard of living.

III. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sectors: Agriculture, Health
Supporting sectors: Labour, Land Affairs, Posts, Telecommunications and
Broadcasting, RDP, South African Communication Services, Trade and
Industry, Water Affairs and Forestry, Welfare and Population Development.

IV National strategies
·
Development of a National Integrated Nutrition Programme
· Development of a National Nutrition Information System
· Reduction of low-birth weight rate
· Reduction of micro-nutrient deficiency disorders
· Improvement of breast-feeding rates
· Promotion of oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding in diarrhoeal disease
· Improvement of growth promotion and monitoring
· Improvement of household food security.

CHILD AND MATERNAL HEALTH
I. Goals
1. Eradication of poliomyelitis by 1998
2. Elimination of neonatal tetanus by 1995
3. Reduction by 90% of measles cases (compared to pre-immunisation levels) by 1995 and reduction in measles deaths by 95% by 2000
4. At least 90% of children under one year of age to be fully immunised against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis by 2000
5. At least 90% of women of childbearing age to be fully immunised against tetanus by 2000
6. Reduction of 1990 maternal mortality rate by 50% by 2000
7. Reduction by 50% in the deaths due to diarrhoea in children under the age of five years and a 25% reduction in the diarrhoea incidence rate by 2000
8. Reduction by one third in the deaths due to acute respiratory infections in children under five years by 2000.

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 2: Non-discrimination
Article 3: Best interests of the child
Article 6: Survival and development
Article 12: Child's opinion
Article 17: Access to appropriate information and materials (especially those aimed at the promotion of physical and mental health).
Article 18: Parental responsibilities
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 24: Access to health and health services
Article 26: Social security
Article 27: Standard of living
Article 28: Education
Article 39: Rehabilitative care.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sector: Health
Supporting sectors: Agriculture, Education, Environmental Affairs and
Tourism, Housing, ROP, South African Communication Services, Water
Affairs and Forestry and Welfare and Population Development.

IV. National strategies
Develop programmes to deal with the following:
· A national health system
· School health services
· Children with disabilities Chronic illness and HIVIAIDS
· Injury prevention
· Mental health services
· Maternal and child health programmes and interventions
· Adolescent health.

WATER AND SANITATION
I. Goals
1. At least 90% of the population should have access to safe drinking water, effective latrines, effective disposal of waste and suitable washing facilities for personal hygiene by the year 2000
2. All health care facilities should have access to adequate safe domestic water supplies, effective sanitation facilities, and practise acceptable sanitary standards by 1997
3. All crèches and schools should maintain acceptable sanitary standards and have access to adequate safe domestic water supplies and effective sanitation facilities by 2000
4 At least one adult member of each household in South Africa should have a basic knowledge of the hygiene principles relating to water and sanitation by
2000

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 3: Best interests of the child
Article 6: Survival and development
Article 20: Protection of children without families
Article 22: Refugee children
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 24: Health and health services
Article 26: Social security
Article 27: Standard of living.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sector: Constitutional Development, Housing, Water Affairs and
Forestry
Supporting sectors: Agriculture, Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Health,
Home Affairs, Education, Land Affairs, Public Works, RDP.

IV. National strategies
·
Development of standards and policies for sanitation policy
· Education and training programmes
· Subsidies for provision of basic water and sanitation
· Planning and implementation of water and sanitation projects
· Monitoring the provision of water and sanitation services
· Assessment of community needs and problems.

EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND BASIC EDUCATION
I. Goals
1. Expansion of early childhood development activities, including appropriate low-cost family and community-based interventions
2. Universal access to basic education, and achievement of primary education by at least 80% of primary school-age children through formal school, or non-formal education of comparable learning standards
3. Reduction of the adult illiteracy rate to at least half its 1990 level
4. Increased acquisition by individuals and families of the knowledge, skills and values required for better living, made available through all educational channels, including the mass media, other forms of modern and traditional communication and social action, with effectiveness measured in terms of behavioural change

II. Relevant articles of the convention on the rights of the child
Article 2: Non-discrimination
Article 5: Parental guidance and the child's evolving capacities
Article 12: The child's opinion
Article 13: Freedom of expression
Article 14: Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Article 17: Access to appropriate information
Article 18: Parental responsibilities
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 28: Education
Article 29: Aims of education
Article 31: Leisure, recreation and cultural activities.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sectors: Education, Welfare and Population Development (up to age 5)
Supporting sectors: Agriculture, Arts and Culture, Environmental Affairs and
Tourism, Health, Housing, Labour, Mineral and Energy Affairs, Posts,
Telecommunications and Broadcasting, ROP, South African Communication
Services, Sports and Recreation, and Water Affairs and Forestry.

IV. National strategies
· Development of policies and standards for curriculum, training, facilities and materials
· Development of subsidies, an information system, and training and other
standards for early childhood development
· Education support services including school health, social work and
psychological services
· Specialised education
· Monitoring and evaluation of education programmes.

SOCIAL WELFARE DEVELOPMENT (FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, OUT
OF HOME CARE AND SOClAL SECURITY)
I. Goals
1. To ensure that appropriate social welfare services are provided for children, especially those living in poverty, those who are vulnerable and those who have special needs. These services should include preventive and protective services, facilities, social relief and social security programmes
2. To promote and strengthen the partnerships within governmental departments, and between government and organisations in civil society which are involved in the delivery of social services
3. To give effect to international conventions of the United Nations that have been ratified by the Government of National Unity
4. To realise the relevant objectives of the Constitution, and the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP)

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 3: Best interests of the child
Article 5: Parental guidance and the child's evolving capacities
Article 6: Survival and development
Article 9: Separation from parents
Article 11: Illicit transfer and non-return
Article 18: Parental responsibilities
Article 19: Protection from abuse and neglect
Article 20: Protection of children without families
Article 21: Adoption
Article 22: Refugee status
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 25: Periodic review of placement
Article 26: Social security
Article 27: Standard of living
Article 32: Child labour
Article 33: Illicit use of narcotic drugs
Article 34: Sexual exploitation and sexual abuse
Article 35: Sale, trafficking and abduction
Article 36: Other forms of exploitation
Article 37: Inhumane treatment or punishment
Article 39: Rehabilitative care.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sectors: Welfare and Population Development
Supporting sectors: Arts and Culture, Science and Technology, Education,
Health, Justice, Labour, Posts, Telecommunications and Broadcasting, RDP,
South African Communication Services, South African Police Services, Sports and Recreation.

IV. National strategies
Develop structures or programmes to deal with the following:
· Welfare
· Pre-school children
· School-going children
· Violence
· Child abuse and neglect
· Street I homeless children
· Substance abuse Child offenders
· Child labour
· Out-of-home care
· Children of divorcing, divorced, separated and single parents.

LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES
I. Goal
To provide all children with the opportunity to engage in leisure, recreation and cultural activities

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 13: Freedom of expression
Article 14: Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Article 15: Freedom of association
Article 28: Education
Article 29: Aims of education
Article 30: Children of minorities or indigenous peoples
Article 31: Leisure, recreation and cultural activities
Article 32: Child labour
Article 36: Exploitation of children.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sector: Arts and Culture, Science and Technology and Sport and
Recreation
Supporting sectors: Education, Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Housing
and RDP.

IV. National strategies
·
Development of Arts, Culture, Heritage, Film, Library and Information Councils, Foundations and Forums
· Strategies to ensure that children have equitable access to facilities
· Strategies to ensure that there are public resources f6r culture, arts, heritage, film, information programmes and sports and recreational activities
· Development of curriculum and training for leisure and cultural activities.

CHILD PROTECTION MEASURES
I. Goals

1. To ensure that the best interests of the child are protected within the criminal and civil justice system
2. To ensure that the child has the right
· to security and the relevant social services
· not to be subject to neglect or abuse
· not to be subject to exploitative labour practices nor to be required or permitted to do work which is hazardous or harmful to the child's education or well-being
· in criminal matters, to be treated in a way that takes account of his or her age
3. Within the framework of 1 and 2 above, to
· establish a separate juvenile criminal justice system
· address the problems related to children who are involved in all forms of abuse, including sexual abuse
· protect children from using and trafficking in narcotic drugs
· address problems relating to children of divorcing, divorced or separated parents and to children of single parents
· eliminate any form of racial, gender or geographic discrimination or imbalances still existing in the criminal and civil justice system in respect of children
· promote justice that is sensitive to children, with an emphasis on the training of personnel who work with children in the justice system
4. In the attainment of the above, to promote and strengthen the partnerships within state departments and between state departments and organisations in civil society which are involved in the administration of justice
5. To link the entire question of children in the civil and criminal justice system to broader developmental issues
6. To promote the Convention on the Rights of the Child within a broader framework of a human rights culture and to make the public and people in the justice system aware of it

II. Relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 2: Protection of the child's rights
Article 3: Best interests of the child
Article 5: Rights and duties of parents and legal guardians
Article 9: Right not to be separated from parents
Article 11: Measures to be taken by state parties to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad
Article 12: Right to express views and views to be given due weight and the right to be heard in judicial proceedings
Article 13: Right to impart information through any medium
Article 15: Freedom of association and freedom of peaceful assembly
Article 16: Privacy
Article 17(e): Protection from injurious information and material
Article 18: Parental responsibilities
Article 19: Protection from all physical and mental violence, abuse, injury, neglect, exploitation which shall include measures providing effective procedures to support, prevent, identify, report, investigate, treat and follow up instances of child maltreatment
Article 20: Right to special protection and assistance provided by the State
Article 21: Adoption
Article 22: Refugee children
Article 23: Children with disabilities
Article 25: Periodic review of treatment
Article 26: Social security
Article 27: Standard of living
Article 28: Education
Article 30: Children of minorities or of indigenous peoples
Article 32: Child labour
Article 33: Drug abuse
Article 34: Sexual exploitation and sexual abuse (including commercial sexual exploitation)
Article 35: Sale, trafficking and abduction
Article 36: Other forms of exploitation
Article 37: Children deprived of their liberty
Article 38: Children in armed conflict
Article 39: Rehabilitation for child victims
Article 40: Rights of juvenile offenders.

Ill. Responsible lead and supporting sectors
Lead sectors: Correctional Services, Justice, South African Police Service,
Safety and Security and Welfare and Population Development
Supporting sectors: Agriculture, Arts and Culture, Science and Technology,
Education, Foreign Affairs, Health, Home Affairs, Labour, RDP, Safety and security, Sports and Recreation and the President's Office.

IV. National strategies
·
Training, policies and legislation
· Child protection
· Child-sensitive justice
· Safe borders
· Substance abuse
· Offenders
· Victims
· Juvenile justice prevention and administration
· Child labour
· Child welfare and children's court
· Refugee children
· Child abuse
· Abduction
· Family and customary law reform (guardianship, adoption and maintenance) Implementation.

GENERAL MEASURES FOR IMPLEMENTING AND SUSTAINING
COMMITMENT TO THE NPA
The actions that have been listed in this document relate to implementing the key policy areas of the NPA. In addition, the following measures will facilitate general implementation of the NPA:
· Mechanisms at provincial and local levels for co-ordinating policies relating to children and for monitoring implementation of the CRC
· Measures to harmonise national law and policy with the CRC
Measures to make the CRC widely known to children and adults
· Measures to make reports widely available
· Plans to examine current arrangements for responding to natural disasters and man-made calamities
· Plans to support further research which will close knowledge gaps.

The NPA is also recommending the development of several structures to ensure sustained commitment during implementation of the NPA. Structural options include:

A National Structure for Children: to promote the rights and interests of children, to co-ordinate policies relating to children at the national level, and to promote full implementation of the CRC.

Technical Advisory Committees: comprising individuals or representatives of institutions who have the technical experience required to support the actions of the implementers and to monitor progress; they should be appointed by the Steering Committee.

Conclusion
South Africa will assume responsibility for giving "first call" to children and to adhering to the Convention for the Rights of the Child, through the implementation of the National Programme of Action for Children.

Implementation of the NPA will involve all departments and offices of government at all levels, as well as non-governmental organisations and all sectors of society. The process of applying the Convention's standards and principles will be built into the core of government and into all existing co-ordinating and policy development structures, including, centrally, the Reconstruction and Development Programme.

This NPA report provides a framework for national activities, for the development and implementation of programmes of action at provincial and local levels, and for identifying the resources needed, strategies for using resources, and a monitoring plan. Through its implementation, South Africa will take a significant step towards fulfilling children's rights, and improving their overall health and well-being.

APPENDIX A
ARTICLES IN THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
RELEVANT TO EACH GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT

Agriculture:
Article 32 (with Labour) - child labour in agriculture; Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - implications for children's health of agriculture policy. e.g. nutrition, pollution. accident prevention etc.; general; relevance of agriculture policy to alleviating discrimination against rural children.
Arts and Culture, Science and Technology: Article 31 - right of child to play and recreation; to participate freely in cultural life and the arts; Article 30, and (with Education) Articles 28 and 29 - language rights of children; Article 24 - implications of language policy for children's health; also implications of science and technology policies; Article 36 - no exploitation of children in scientific research.
Constitutional Affairs: ensuring consistency of the Constitution with the Convention; full consideration of the particular difficulties for children in ensuring constitutional rights, and recognition as in the Convention of children's "evolving capacities".
Correctional Services: Article 3.3 - standards for institutions; Articles 37 and 40 -restriction of liberty and administration of juvenile justice (also consideration of three other relevant UN instruments: Beijing Rules etc.).
Defence: Article 38 - armed conflicts; age of recruitment to armed forces; effects on children of armed conflicts in which South African defence forces are involved within and outside South Africa.
Education: Articles 28 and 29 - provision and aims of education; Article 31 (with Arts and Culture) - right of child to play, leisure, recreation and to participate freely in cultural life and arts; Article 42 - making Convention known.
Environmental Affairs and Tourism: Article 24 (with Health) - right to a safe environment; disproportionate effects on children of environmental pollution; Article 28 (with Education) -development of respect for natural environment; Article 31 - implications of environmental policies for children's right to play and recreation.
Finance: Article 4 - Implementation to maximum extent of available resources; implies consideration of Convention in budgeting, allocation of GNP etc. (with al'. ministries).
Foreign Affairs: obligations under Convention for international co-operation (mentioned in Articles 17.21, 23, 24, 27, 28, 34, 38, 39). Ensuring foreign aid programmes and policies are compatible with commitments to children and consistent with Convention (integration with function of Inter-Departmental Committee for International Development Coordination).
Health: Article 2 - Non-discrimination; Article 3 Best interests of the child; Articles 6 and 24 - child's right to health and to optimal development, and to health services; Article 17 -Access to appropriate information and materials (especially those aimed at the promotion of physical and mental health); Article 23 - Children with disabilities; Article 27 - Standard of living.
Home Affairs: Articles 7, 10, 11,22 - nationality, immigration, refugee children.
Housing: Article 24 (with health) - implications of housing for health; Article 27 - special needs and requirements of children in relation to housing; Article 31 - implications of housing policy for children's rights to play and recreation.
Justice: Articles 1-9; 11-13; 15-23; 25-28; 30; 32-36; Articles 37-40 (with Correctional Services, Safety and Security) - protection of children from torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment and from arbitrary or unlawful restriction of liberty; distinct system of juvenile justice with emphasis on avoiding judicial proceedings and institutional placements.
Labour: Article 32 - child labour; Article 28 - vocational information and guidance. Implications of ILO instruments for children.
Land Affairs: Article 27 - implications for adequate standard of living for children; seeking to end discrimination against rural children; Article 31 - implications for children's right to play and recreation of land use and ownership.
Mineral and Energy Affairs: Articles 6 and 24 (with health) - implications of policies for children's health (including mining, pollution, health and safety at work, electrification); with health, education etc. - relevance of electrification and access to appropriate and affordable energy to achieving children's rights.
Posts, Telecommunication and Broadcasting: Article 17 - children's access to appropriate information; protection of children from injurious information; respect for linguistic needs and rights of children; Article 13 - children's right to freedom of expression, contribution of the media; Articles 28 and 29 (with Education) - contribution of media to education; Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - contribution of the media to children's health; Article 31 - contribution of media to children's cultural, artistic rights.
Provincial Affairs, Constitutional Development and Local Government: ensure that the commitment to children and implementation of the Convention is taken up at local level; that, for example, there is proper consideration of involvement of children and consideration of children's views throughout provincial and local government and in all constitutional development.
Public Enterprises: ensure accountability to children and their needs and rights in stewardship over public resources.
Public Works: Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - implications of built environment policies for children's health (and. for example, for their right to play and recreation); Built Environment Councils' aims and work must reflect commitments to children.
Safety and Security: Articles 37 and 40 (with Justice and Correctional Services) ensure a police service responsive to children's needs and rights; Article 19 (with Justice, Health, Welfare and Population Development, Education) - right of children to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence; ensure that crime prevention/community safety policies reflect particular importance of children and involve children directly.
Sport and Recreation: Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - relevance of sport and recreation to children's health; Article 28 and 29 (with Education) - relevance of sport and recreation to education; Article 31 - right of children to play and recreation.
Trade and Industry: Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - relevance of consumer protection to children's health; ensure that policy objectives are consistent with commitments to children - e.g. effects of industrialisation; (with Labour and Welfare and Population Development) -respecting needs of child-rearing in employment etc.
Transport: Articles 6 and 24 (with Health) - implications of transport policy for children's health (accidents, pollution etc.); Article 28 (with Education) - implications of transport policy for right of access to education; Article 23 - implications of transport policy for disabled children; Article 31 - implications of transport policy for children's right to play and recreation (e.g. children's mobility often threatened by roads development etc.).
Water Affairs and Forestry: Article 24 - (with health) right to clean water and sanitation; (with Environmental Affairs and Tourism, and Land Affairs) environmental rights of children; Article 31 - child's right to leisure, play and recreation; Article 28 (with Education) development of respect for natural environment.
Welfare and Population Development: Article 1 - definition of child, age of majority, and other ages at which particular rights are gained; Articles 5 and 18 - State's duty to respect responsibilities and rights of parents; parental responsibilities; State's duty to render appropriate assistance to parents; Article 7 - registration of birth, right to a name etc.; Articles 9, 20, 3.3 - limit separation of child from parents; special protection for children 'without families; institution and services must conform to standards; Article 10 - family reunification; Articles 11 and 35 - illicit transfer, non-return, abduction of children; Article 21
- adoption, including inter-country; Article 24 - (with Health) family planning; Article 26 -child's right to benefit from social security; Article 27 - (with other ministries) right of child to adequate standard of living; State's obligation to assist parents; State's obligation to secure maintenance for children from both parents.
Without Portfolio (RDP): General responsibility together with all ministries to ensure Reconstruction and Development Programme is linked throughout to full implementation of the Convention.
Annexure 2:
Public Expenditure on Basic Social Services in South Africa
A Study by the Financial and Fiscal Commission for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Chapters 1- 4:
Key Issues
·
Definition of Basic Social Services
· Economic and social trends in SA
· Analysis of budget expenditure
· More detailed analysis of Education and Health budgets

Basic Social Services (BSS)
·
Education
- pre-primary; and
- primary
· Health
- environmental health;
- health education;
- immunisations;
- family planning;
- maternal and child health services;
services provided at clinics, community health centres, community nursing services, and by district surgeons

Other Services Considered to be Part of BSS in South Africa
·
Water and sanitation
· Nutrition
· Social welfare
· Public works programmes

Economic and Social Trends
·
Overall South Africa displays considerable divergence between its
GNP per capita and its HDI
· GNP per capita ($3 160) rates SA a middle income country like Malaysia
and Croatia
· HDI ranks SA with countries with much lower GNP per capita e.g. Sri
Lanka ($ 700)

Poverty
·
In 1995: 53% of population classified as poor (less than R 300.00 per month)
· 29% as ultra poor (less than R 171 per month)
· 75% of poor live in rural areas
· two thirds of the poor live in EC, KZN, NP

Chapter 5: Key Issues
·
What is the scope for re-allocating resources to BSS from other parts of the budget?
· What is the scope for intra- sectoral restructuring within the Education and Health sectors?


Inter-sectoral Restructuring
·
Security sector
· Economic sectors
· Other social services like Housing, Social Security and Welfare
· General macro-economic context

How to Strengthen Financing of Basic Education (BE)
·
Increase resources for education and giving basic education a higher priority within that budget;
· Improve cost efficiency and effectiveness of education expenditure; and
· Improve the incidence of education expenditure

Intra- Sectoral Restructuring: Health
·
Strategies to increase resources for the public health sector and hence for BHS;
· Strategies to improve efficiency within the health sector, which can also increase the resources available for BHS; and
· Strategies to improve the incidence of public expenditure on BHS.

Chapter 6
·
Conclusions
· Recommendations
· Role of Government
· Role of Donors

Conclusions and Recommendations

·
Less than the 20% level is spent on BSS.
- Requires a shift in spending towards BSS.
- Greater scope for increased BSS in health.
- More spending on water and sanitation.
- An integrated, pre-school nutrition programme.
· Narrow definition of BSS ignores social welfare, water and sanitation and public works programmes.
· Extending the definition suggests over 20% of the budget on BSS.
· Expanding the definition may require a revision of the 20% target.
· Wider definition of BSS requires clarity over relationship between cash and in-kind benefits.
· Both are essential to BSS, but the levels of each and co-ordination thereof is required.
· Limited scope for more revenue for BSS from other functions.
· Political support is required to redirect spending to BSS.
· Additional private funds if government can improve the quality of service provision.
· Middle class shifting to private sector, decreases burden on the state.
· Constraints to efficient delivery must be removed.
· The sequencing and speed of the macro economic programme (not the targets) should be revised.
· Additional spending may be needed in the short to medium term.
- Aimed at training, additional posts and systems for developing greater financial and management capacity.
· There is a need to establish the link between the macro-programme and planning through the MTEF.
· Scope for improved outcomes from BSS not through increased spending.
· Scope exists for efficiency improvements in BSS.
· The incidence and cost effectiveness should be improved.
· Achieved through spatial reorganisation, targeting, preventative and integrated programmes.
· Achieving efficiency improvements and better targeting, constraints have to be
overcome:
- Management and financial capacity;
- Management, geographic and socio-economic information systems are needed.
- Institutional constraints must be resolved.
Increasing capital spending, and redirecting operating expenditure
· Cost cutting through retrenchments of personnel and through the use of targeting is not a panacea.
· Without proper management and the ability to ensure efficiency gains, retrenchment will merely result in lower levels of service delivery.

The Role of Government?
1) Recommit to BSS especially to the poor.
2) Through restructuring which is difficult to achieve and requires realistic time frames.
Additional funds may be needed in the short to medium-term.
Actions:
Enhanced preventative services.
Reorganise the procedures for new policy development.
Additional resources for critical posts, training and system development.
Emphasise and rationalise information and monitoring.

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