DEFF, SAWS, Isimangaliso & SANBI 2021/22 Annual Performance Plans; KNP land claimants; Private nature reserves on hunting

Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment

05 May 2021
Chairperson: Mr F Xasa (ANC)
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Meeting Summary

Annual Performance Plans

The Committee met to be the briefing by the entities of Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Environment (DFFE) on their 2021/22 Annual Performance Plans. The meeting was a hybrid one with some joining via a virtual platform as the Committee performed its oversight visit to the Kruger National Park (KNP).

The South African Weather Service confirmed the appointment of their new Chief Executive Officer, Mr Ishaam Abader. For the 2021/22 financial year, the entity projects total revenue of about R473.706 million for the year 2021/22. This is expected to increase over the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework period, up to around R544.417 million by the year 2023/24. The expenditure for 2021/22 will be at about R466.885 million. SAWS informed the Committee of the difficulties caused by COVID19 and the challenges and risks to its operations. SAWS had to consider “alternative futures” to address uncertainties affecting its long-term viability and sustainability

SAWS was asked by the community how it will address their decreased revenue due to COVID-19; why the previous CEO was dismissed and how the entity would motivate its staff members to achieve the targets as set in the APP. The Committee commended the entity on its femicide and gender-based violence initiatives.

iSimangaliso Wetland Park presented its five-year medium-term strategic framework plan and targets as well as its 2021/22 annual performance plan targets. It also included the entity’s risk management plan and mitigation strategy across the different programmes. The priorities of the iSimangaliso Park authority was the meet the three objectives of the Park. Challenges faced include a constrained budget and capacity due to the inability to fill positions. The entity indicated that its total 2021/22 adjusted budget is R264 116 740.

iSimangaliso Wetland Park was asked by the Committee on why they did not report their employment target on youth and women. The Committee said it is happy that the entity is involving Amakhosi councils in their stakeholder engagements.

The South African National Biodiversity Institute also presented its five-year medium-term strategic plan targets as well as its 2021/22 annual performance plan targets. Some of the challenges faced by the Institute include budget shortfalls and capacity constraints. The Covid-19 regulations impacted heavily on the achievement of targets and stakeholder engagements. Implementation of an innovative and adaptive approach is being undertaken to deal with human and financial constraints and the challenging operating environment. The Institute’s total income for the 2021/22 financial year stands at R756 041 106.

The Committee asked the Institute how the dual policy will affect local and international tourists. What is currently being use to ensure uninterrupted power supply, the hosting of summer events at Kirstenbosch gardens and how many numbers of animal and plant species were classified for the current financial year. Members also inquired about consequence management and non-compliance.

Pertaining to the oversight visit, the Committee asked if there are any interrelations between the Kruger National Park and Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi. Members asked when the statue of Paul Kruger would be removed and the changing of names. SANParks was advised to improve the state of workers’ residences and awareness campaigns on waste in their environment programmes.

The Committee asked the Associated Private Nature Reserves if Impala Culling Management is universal across public and private reserves in South Africa and what happens when Associate Private Nature Reserves are non–compliant. The Committee asked the nature reserves to respect wildlife and do away with trophy hunting.


Meeting report

Opening Remarks by the Chairperson                      

The Chairperson opened the meeting, welcoming the Members, Committee support staff and all the guest delegates. He then handed over to the South African Weather Services for the first presentation of the meeting.

South African Weather Services (SAWS) 2021/22 APP

The Chairperson of the South African Weather Service (SAWS), Ms Nana Magomola, introduced the SAWS delegation and reported the appointment of the new Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Mr Ishaam Abader. She said that the former CEO, Mr Mnikeli Ndabambi, joined the meeting to answer some of the questions that cannot be answered by the new CEO. The Chief Financial Officer (CFO) was introduced as Mr Norman Mzizi.

SAWS informed the Committee of the impact of COVID19 on its operations – there was a sudden change in the landscape as result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Challenges and risks for SAWS operations was brought about by the pandemic. The national lockdown resulted in a loss of time and the entity anticipated revenue loss from commercial revenue; specifically, aviation, due to lockdown restrictions and future operation of the industry.

However, SAWS continues to implement its internal workshops to address challenges of Gender-Based Violence and Femicide (GBVF), the promotion of  equality of all gender groupings
including the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex (LGBTQI+) community in the
workplace, integration of gender considerations into all aspects of  budget processes and programme planning, as well as demystification of what constitutes sexual harassment  in the workplace; are but some of the ways SAWS contributes towards an equal society free of GBVF

SAWS had to consider “alternative futures” to address uncertainties affecting its long-term viability and sustainability. Ultimately SAWS aspires to realise a MEGA SAWS Scenario wherein key elements include:

-An optimal scientific workforce

-Best-in-class contemporary technology   

-Increased revenues from multiple sources; underpinned by high demand for SAWS’ services and products

The presentation outlined the initiatives SAWS was committed towards implementing to ensure the realisation of the strategic intent. Members were taken through the outcomes, outputs, performance indicators and targets for each of the entity’s programmes – see attached presentation for details

The presentation then outlined the key risks and how they would be mitigated – see attached presentation for details

Turning to the budget, the presentation detailed income, cash flow projections and capital expenditure – see attached presentation for details

iSimangaliso Wetland Park 2021/22 APP and 2021-2024 Strategic Plan

The Chairperson of Isimangaliso Park, Prof Thandi Nzama, thanked the Chairperson of the Committee and introduced the presenters as the CEO, Mr Sibusiso Bukhosini, and the CFO, Ms Qhamu Mntambo.

The Committee was informed that in terms of key considerations in the review of the five-year Strategic Plan and development of the final 2021/22 APP, the proposed 2021/22 APP, which aims to continue implementation of the Entity’s approved Strategic Plan (Aligned to Environment Sector priorities as outlined in government’s 2019-24 Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) Plan and eight priorities of the sixth administration). Provision was made to allow review of some of the Strategic Plan outcomes/Targets based (add or remove), given the changes in the environments since approval (Covid-19 Outbreak, Reduction on operations and employee budget). There was review and de-prioritisation of work and programmes found to be beyond the constitutional and statutory mandate scope of the Department. There was implementation of key interventions in line with post Covid-19 Green Economy Recovery Plan. The entity demonstrated a contribution towards addressing the challenge of Gender Based Violence and Femicide and implementation of the Strategy approved by the President. There was also a focus on interventions which address negative socio-economic effects o fCovid-19, which is, job creation through DFFE-funded programmes.

The priorities of the iSimangaliso Park authority was the meet the three objectives of the Park. Challenges faced include a constrained budget and capacity due to the inability to fill positions.

The presentation detailed the give-year MTSF targets and proposed 2021/22 annual targets. Also outlined was the risk management plan and planned mitigation – see presentation attached for details

The total 2021/22 adjusted budget for the entity is R264 116 740. This breaks down to: R84 762 780 for the Expanded Public Works Programme; R116 453 960 as the operational grant; project fee for grants: R7 843 200, admin and management fees for grants: R10 510 060, interest income (investment from grants): R25 500 000 and income generated internally: R19 046 740.


Mr N Paulsen (EFF) congratulated the new CEO of SAWS, Mr Ishaam Abader, on his appointment. Mr Paulsen told the CEO that he will be faced with many challenges resource wise because the SAWS’ work is dependent on big data analysis. He asked SAWS how it was planning to upskill its existing traditional tools to deal with the change in technology. He also asked how SAWS will address the challenge of decreased revenue impacted by the decreased number of flights due to COVID-19.

Mr Paulsen asked iSimangaliso Wetland Park if it was permanently planning to prevent the formation of the barrier between the sea and the estuary. He further asked how it planned to address the issue of salinity in the water system.

Ms C Phillips (DA) asked SAWS to explain the need for the two contracts highlighted in slide eight, under upper air system monitoring. She said that the previous CEO, Dr Linda Makuleni, was fired for various reasons that were never brought to the Committee. She requested a briefing on those reasons, in list form. She asked if any action was taken against the former CEO. She also asked for further updates and progress made on other cases including that of Mr Jerry Lengoasa. She requested this in written format. Lastly, she asked for the definition of commercial income.

Ms Phillips congratulated the management of iSimangaliso Wetland Park and said that the community is much more at ease with the new management. She said the decrease of water in Umfolozi and Umsunduzi is not due to the farmers taking water upstream. The farmers’ lands have been flooded due to salt build up and growth of the reeds. It is causing economic devastation for small- and large-scale farmers and prevents water inflow to the river. She asked why the cost of the building was so inflated. She asked if there were paying visitors in 2021/11 and questioned the decreased projection in visitor fees from R115 000 in 2021/22 down to R45 000 in 2023/24.

She noted that the initial charges reflected on slide six under security was R9.6 million, R35.6 million and then R38 million - she asked for the detail of why the contract was increased and to whom it was awarded to.

Mr D Bryant (DA) asked SAWS and iSimangaliso Wetland Park about their conversion from Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) to Operational Expenditure (OPEX) and how it impacted the capital projects that were defunded or shifted across. In terms of performance balances and salary increases, he was concerned by the R37.5 million deficit from the 2019/2020 audit. He asked SAWS how it motivated its staff members to achieve ambitious targets to make SAWS sustainable. “You cannot use the threat of people losing their jobs if they underperform as the only way to achieve results. We have to find ways to incentivise.”

Ms N Gantsho (ANC) appreciated the fact that SAWS is dealing with Gender-Based Violence (GBV) and femicide. Are there any school programmes that can motivate learners to do science? Ms Gantsho asked the iSimangaliso team if it was not intending to employ more environmental monitors or if the entity really planned to stop at 120 as a target for the 2021/22 financial year. Are there no plans to employ more environmental monitors? The country is faced with youth unemployment. There is a need for more initiatives that will generate work opportunities. The 120-employment target will not assist in this regard.

Ms T Mchunu (ANC) asked SAWS why its target for women (slide 14) is 36% in the current financial year and 40% in the next one. Why is the target not 50%? She asked if SAWS included the detection of lightning infrastructure availability in rural areas with the 80% target, reflected on slide 11.

Ms Mchunu said she is happy that iSimangaliso Wetland Park is targeting 24 Amakhosi councils for stakeholder engagements. She raised her concerts on the target number of municipal and ward council meetings for the two serviced districts (Umkhanyakude and King Cetshwayo). She reckoned that the number is insufficient, but said she will check if they are referring to ward councils, local aid councils and district aid councils. She also pointed out that iSimangaliso Wetland Park did not report on its employment target for youth and women in management positions.

SAWS Responses

Ms Nana Magomola asked to offer comprehensive written responses to Ms Phillips’s questions because some of the questions have been responded to before in previous briefings.

Regarding the question posed by Mr Paulsen, on resources, skills, hardware and data analytics, Mr Abader responded that SAWS must look at how it funds these given that its CAPEX is now used for operational purposes. SAWS will need to prioritise maintenance and upgrading some of the infrastructure. SAWS will then need to partner with other institutions to look at moving funding avenues. He said that SAWS has developed a work-based skills plan to remain relevant in terms of skill sets. The staff members will be motivated by opportunities to study further. He indicated that the entity has partnered with other learning institutions.

Mr Abader said that SAWS is already cutting internal costs to address the issue of lost revenue. Additionally, SAWS is looking into new products that they will intentionally sell on the market and other sources of revenues through donations.

SAWS will offer a comprehensive response in writing to Ms Phillips' question on the issue of the two contracts and other cases. The case number for Mr Jerry Lengoasa is Littleton case 571/04/2019Mr Abader explained that SAWS has non-regulated revenue stream to deal with revenue shortfalls, called commercial income, which involves various sectors such as energy, water, marine and aviation.

Mr Abader said that the impact of the conversion from CAPEX to OPEX was significant in the fourth quarter when most of the targets were not met regarding infrastructure.

SAWS endeavoured to respond to Ms Gantsho’s question, on science, in writing.

Mr Abader indicated that SAWS has internships to encourage youth to get involved in science spaces.  He explained the indicated target of 30% women at SAWS is because the current structure is almost filled and there is a very little room for SAWS to set higher targets. He assured the Committee that if there are vacancies, SAWS will prioritise women.

The former CEO, Mr Mnikeli Ndabambi, highlighted that most of the SAWS programmes are run in collaboration with schools. There is another initiative with the Capricorn District coming soon.  The lightning detection networks are also present in rural communities. There are 24 sensors across the country in all the provinces. The small area that is not covered well is the semi-desert site of South Namibia (Springbok).

iSimangaliso Responses

Mr Sibusiso Bukhosini stressed that the iSimangaliso Wetland Park team is dealing with an estuary that used to function naturally for many years without any human intervention. Human intervention in the form of farming and canalisation of the major supply of freshwater into the estuary caused many issues, such as artificial conversion of the Umfolozi River. During droughts, fresh water was not entering the estuary but was entering the sea. There was a removal of sand that was used during the dredging process. The 1.8 metre sand was put between the sea and the estuary, which solved the salinity problem because there was enough water that was charging from the Umfolozi and Msunduzi estuary. However, the requirement of the project was to monitor the reaction of the water system.

Mr Bukhosini said that the estuary was unfortunately no longer functioning as an estuary but a fresh lake water system, leading to an increase in salinity and reed. He highlighted that the team adopted the principle of adaptive management strategy in accordance with the estuary management plan. The focus was on addressing the biological and ecological issues, not farmers, communities or any economic issue involving the estuary.

The title deeds of the farmers reflect the warning of possible flooding. Flooding is a natural phenomenon. Sadly, there is nothing iSimangaliso can do as an entity unless advised by its management plan to deal with the issue for the benefit of the estuary. iSimangaliso has a multi-sectoral team consisting of scientists and farmers who regularly meet to review how the system works. The meetings are currently working. The long-term plan is to ensure that these problems would not occur in the future. There will also be implementations of climate change and green economy strategies for estuary management.

Mr Bukhosini said the reason for the building’s inflated cost is due to the geographical location at which the building will be constructed. He reminded Ms Phillips that the building is old and it therefore needs to be demolished and reconfigured so that the offices are ready. He further highlighted that demolition has its own costs. The iSimangaliso team will engage with the building engineers and provide the building documents that explain what is required from an engineering perspective.

He said that areas like Sodwana had high crime rates, and tourists were continuously complaining about jewellery theft. Fences were cut due to animosity between the Park and the community. The entity had to hire three security companies to combat crime. He said the Park Authority would be happy to resubmit the information on the security contracts, if needed.

He said that the entity would be happy to increase the environmental monitors from 120 to 500, but due to constraints in fiscal allocations, the entity can only manage 120. He added that the 120 is augmented in different ways – for instance, through creating employment for about 57% to 58% for females and youth living in and around the Park. The Authority was not planning on filling any vacancies during this financial year due to fiscus challenges, as reflected by the presented budget. The entity ensures that women in its management are included in the following sectors: CFO, IT, senior stakeholders and tourism.

South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) 2021/22 APP

The Chairperson of SANBI, Ms Beryl Ferguson, thanked the Committee Chairperson for the opportunity to brief the Committee. She introduced the presenting team as Acting CEO, Ms Carmel Mbizvo, COO, Mr Elliot Mashile, and CFO, Ms Lorato Sithole.


-Budget shortfalls, capacity constraints and Covid19 regulations impacted heavily on the achievement of targets and stakeholder engagements

-Implementation of an innovative and adaptive approach is being undertaken to deal with human and financial constraints and the challenging operating environment.

-Meetings, training courses and workshops have been redesigned and changed to virtual events and new ways of engaging stakeholders and partners were being explored.

-Loss of income has occurred due to National Botanical Gardens (NBG) and National Zoological Garden (NZG) not being fully operational as a result of COVID-19 related directives on operating times and restrictions on events, venue hire and concerts.

-Whilst the effects of COVID-19 impacted on the provision of marketing SANBI services, other marketing platforms have been utilised to support revenue generation.

-COVID-19 regulations related to transport and large gatherings are likely to continue to impact schools and Higher Education Institutions (HEI) for the foreseeable future and this will make it difficult to achieve human capital development and education targets

Members were then taken through the five-year MTSF targets and proposed 2021/22 annual targets. They were also taken through the risk management plan and planned mitigation – see presentation attached for details

The Institute’s total income for the 2021/22 financial year stands at R756 041 106. This breaks down to: R74 656 240 from externally-funded projects; R128 387 527 from the Institute’s own income; R14 886 339 from investment income; R76 365 000 from EPWP and biosecurity work; R80 536 000 from the Infrastructure and Gardens Expansions Grant as well as R381 210 000 as an operational grant.

The gardens will not be able to generate revenue through some of its streams which pull large numbers of people i.e. host events and concerts. The gardens will be able to operate at 75% of its normal entrance capacity throughout the financial year i.e. the gardens will not reach the previously achieved levels of income. Other externally funded projects income of R22.8 million is not included where SANBI acts as an agent.

In terms of the expenditure, R372 134 433 will be spent on the compensation of employees and another R870 743 will be used to pay the Institute’s board members. A total of R150 628 512 will be used for operational expenditure.

National Treasury has instructed SANBI to reduce compensation of employees by R27.6 million in the next financial year. This reduction is further extended into the outer financial years, totalling R96.7 million (R27.6 million in 2021/22; R33.8 million in 2022/23 and R35.3 million in 2023/24). SANBI has not instituted a cost of living allowance and no bonuses were paid. There was a very limited provision of R14.3m for the filling of critical posts

The non-realisation of own income will negatively impact on the amount of funding that will become available towards operating expenditure as outlined in the presentation. Lastly, there is a reduction on the allocation towards infrastructure totalling R20.3 million over the MTEF period (R5.9 million in 2021/22; R7.3 million in 2022/23 and R7.6 million in 2023/24). This puts pressure on SANBI in terms of maintaining and upgrading its infrastructure across 13 gardens.


Mr Paulsen asked SANBI what happened to the human resources of the outreach activities that were affected by the COVID-19.  He asked how the decrease in the number of visitors to SANBI will affect the revenue and proposed recruitment targets.  

He asked how the Institute is continuing to raise awareness on biodiversity crimes that did not stop during the lockdown. He noted that SANBI mentioned that it will use solar panels in its business continuity plans. What is the institute currently using to ensure that it has uninterrupted power supply?

Mr Bryant asked about the dual pricing which is effective at Kirstenbosch. How much will the price increase for international visitors and decrease for local tourists? He reckoned that it is important to ensure that no one priced out of the market. Otherwise, international tourists may decide to go spend their money elsewhere.

He asked how much consequence management, over non-compliance, has taken place.

Mr Bryant asked the SANBI team why it is not continuing with the outdoor activities in compliance with COVID-19 regulations (maximum gathering of 250 people) to maintain their revenue stream. Is it not possible to keep hosting summer events at Kirstenbosch on a regular basis? He said that this initiative will be beneficial for many artists. Maybe the focus can be on some local artists and schools to cut the costs.

Ms Mchunu commended on the number of plants and animal species, which descriptive and classification information has been compiled. How many do we have for this financial year because the presentation showed additions for other years?

SANBI Responses

Ms Ferguson thanked SAWS for timeous warning on gale force wind and rain at Cape Town. She thanked Mr Bryant on the suggestion to look at hosting events differently. She added that SANBI must look at the viability and cost implications of the events.

Ms Mbizvo said that SANBI was fortunate, under the current financial strains, to keep up with its education, human capital development and awareness raising initiatives. She highlighted that each of the Institute’s gardens has an education centre and teams that focus on education and awareness raising. Management had to be innovative in disseminating information and engagements virtually. The awareness work that is continuing includes the citizen science programmes.

Ms Mbizvo said that SANBI has been dealing with numerous cases regarding consequence management. It is an ongoing programme, and management reports to the entity’s board and audit on a quarterly basis.

Mr Mashile said that SANBI is currently using generators and wants to move to a cleaner environment hence solar panels were being suggested for use at Kirstenbosch. SANBI is conducting financially viable and smaller events as opposed to hosting bigger events at a financial loss.

Mr Bryant said that his question on dual pricing was not answered.

Ms Sithole explained that the dual pricing is applicable to international tourists. Pricing for the local tourists will remain the same. The entity compared its prices to the tourist area at Kirstenbosch amnd the Big Six to see if they are still relevant in the market. She does not have the pricing now, but she will submit it in a written format.

The Chairperson called for a recess but asked everyone to respect the programme because the Committee still had many people to engage with. He advised everyone to be back at 13:00.

[Second Session]

Kruger National Park/SANParks

Mr P Modise (ANC) asked if there are any interrelations between KNP with neighbouring countries like Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi.

Mr Paulsen asked, via the Zoom chatroom: when will the KNP remove the statue of Paul Kruger and change the name of KNP, as part of shedding the legacy of the past?

Ms S Mbatha (ANC) said that it is a pity that some people could not be part of the presentation. The presentation had so many problems; it is “not yet Uhuru” for people at KNP. They are still treated as nobodies.

Ms Mbatha said that the sewage spillage that goes to Olifants River is mixed with any water, which can lead to water-borne diseases like cholera and typhoid. The water must be tested on a weekly basis for percentage faecal containment to protect the animals and humans. She is concerned about the lack of waste awareness from separation to source. She advised SANParks to incorporate waste awareness in their environmental programmes through collaborations with NGOs and tertiary institutions. She was very touched by the unhealthy environment workers are residing at, saying that this needs to be changed as soon as possible. “We cannot be here and let our black brothers stay in an area like a pigsty. I hope we will be taken to those areas and see what is happening.”

Ms Gantsho said that the pictures that were shown are very disturbing, and she asked the manager to show the Committee where he stays, if he can. “He lives in a better place, but our brothers live in a pigsty. We cannot allow that to happen, and we cannot keep quiet.” How do you expect workers to be productive if they are living in those facilities? How are they looking after their kids with those ablution conditions? She demanded a visit to the manager’s residential area to be included in the tour, in addition to the workers’ area.

The Chairperson thanked the Members for their engagement and asked Mr Fundisile Mketeni, CEO of SANParks, to respond to the questions.

SANParks Responses

Mr Mketeni thanked the Committee for good questions. He said that the relationship between Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi was coined through a signed treaty in the past for cross border conservation and ecotourism development. However, due to the shortage of resources, the treaty was recently looked at for emerging issues, especially in Mozambique. There was a Memorandum of Understanding that was signed seven years ago for Mozambique.

Mr Mketeni said that they have a backlog regarding the bad state of SANParks’ hostel infrastructure. About R700 million was needed to upgrade the infrastructure at SANParks, but they have only received R435 million for the past ten years. He agreed that they have inherited the system that was not good for the poor in terms of the hostels. He assured the Committee that they will see what is converted tomorrow for their hostel tours. He said that the sewage comes from outside of KNP because the catchment areas are feeding into the KNP’s river systems. 

Follow-up questions

Mr Paulsen sought clarity on the appointment of a general manager without relevant qualifications (without NQF level six). This is a serious problem, if the aim is to build a capable state with competent and qualified leaders. A labour relations manager was employed without a matric certificate at KNP. “We have many capable people out there with proper experience and qualifications. Now I would like to know the veracity of the statement.”


The Managing Executive of KNP, Mr Gareth Coleman, offered responses, but the audio was inconsistent.

The Chairperson of the SANParks board, Ms Joanne Yawitch, said that the colonial history reflected in SANParks does not reflect the history of indigenous people. SANParks built capacity through bringing expertise in history. There were some consultations around name changes and how they can represent an African perspective of wildlife and culture. She highlighted that Mapungubwe is an example of a SANParks that truly honoured African history. She assured the Committee that there is an ongoing consultation process on dismantling colonial legacy. Therefore, they will see changes.

Questions for the LEDET (Limpopo Economic Development Environment and Tourism), MTPA (Mpumalanga Tourism and Parks Agency) and APNRs (Association Private Nature Reserves)

See document attached for details

Mr Bryant asked whether the culling management of Impalas is universal across private and public reserves. He asked about the non-compliance of offsets and requested a report on what has been happening during the past few years.

Ms Philips asked what actions are being taken against APNRs for non-compliance. She asked whether the pre-season hunting meeting was held. If so, when was it held and what were the results?

Ms Mbatha said that she was happy that the High-Level Panel Report dealt with the issue on animal cruelty and trophy hunting. She did not understand how state-owned enterprises take part in this animal cruelty.  She stressed that the CEO of SANParks and DEFF must make sure that this issue on animal cruelty is dealt with. “Trophy hunting has been banned in many countries.  I do not want to hear about this issue of animal cruelty. It must be a case closed. Allow wild animals to live like us.”


Mr Mketeni said that the government of South Africa must take a position on trophy hunting, so that SANParks can take a stand based on governmental laws. He added that if APNR members do not comply with any of the regulations, they are dealt with legally.

[Due to a connectivity problem, the remainder of the meeting could not be covered.]



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