The Department of Minerals and Energy tabled a draft Strategic Plan, stressing that this was purely a draft at this stage, since the split of the former Department of Minerals and Energy had not been completed and the Director General was still the accounting officer for both functions. It was noted that most of the staff had been retained in the minerals section, but that some were still performing dual functions. The Department noted that the Mining Charter had been completed five years ago and was due for review this year. The Department would also be focusing on enforcement of compliance with regulations and policy, which would involve actively working with the regulations and rules, rehabilitation of mined areas, which presented some challenges around resourcing, improvement of service delivery and redefinition of the roles of the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). Health and Safety audits would be required and further rules and regulations for the diamond trade had been developed but still awaited approval. The strategic objectives were outlined, with a focus on achieving efficiency in health and safety issues and stricter enforcement of compliance. The Department would promote a culture of learning. Although the last four audit certificates had been unqualified there were still certain concerns around the independence of the audit function, which would be addressed. Socio economic development, both by mining houses and the Department’s policy, must be addressed to lead to sustainable growth and prevent social dislocation, whilst putting the interests of the communities to the fore. There was a need to review certain legislation and the Mining Charter. The application process and the requirements for the granting of mining prospecting and mining rights were outlined. The Department also touched upon beneficiation issues, collation of data on what minerals were available and where they were located, attracting investment in mining, environmental protection issues and closing of abandoned and derelict mine shafts. Illegal mining and the deaths and injuries that resulted were of particular concern, with cooperative efforts being put into stopping these activities
Members expressed their concern that too often the holders of mining licences were interested only in profit and asked how the Department would try to reverse this mindset, since they believed that mineral wealth belonged to the people and the mining companies were merely custodians, expressed their dissatisfaction at the low level of beneficiation of minerals in South Africa, and asked whether the Mining Charter had been put to NEDLAC and the Chamber of Mines for comment. Enquiries were posed about the correlation between mine health and safety and loss of skilled staff, particularly the shortage of inspectors, and the Department was asked why it did not use a system of internal promotion to fill vacancies. Members asked who would appraise the strategic plans of the Department, to check that they were in line with national requirements, since the rich seemed to be getting richer and ownership of the mines was limited to a small and unrepresentative sector. Although the Department spoke of transformation, very little was happening, and there were further concerns around foreign ownership of mines and profits being sent out of South Africa, since there was a view that black people must own the mines. A Member queried whether the Department itself was sufficiently transformed, noting that the delegation did not reflect race and gender equality. The Chairperson made strong statements that the SOEs should be used for rural development, that the Mining Charter set some non-negotiable standards which must be enforced, and that the current high toll of death and injuries could not be allowed to continue.
The Chairperson wondered why the whole mining industry could not be nationalised, pointing out that this had been done in other countries. There must be meaningful participation in wealth and job reservations must be transformed into job creation. He pointed out that the threat of nationalization was hardly likely to deter investors, since these very same investors were putting their money into countries that offered significantly higher risks in terms of stability and lack of human rights. He noted that Alexkor had previously excluded non whites and he saw no reason why whites should not now, in turn, be excluded. South Africa was a developmental State and must be developed to suit the people. He suggested that if need be the South African mines could be closed down, until South Africans, alone, were in a position to develop them either with local funding or with the help of those prepared to accept South African conditions. Another Member cautioned, in response, that such statements were likely to be detrimental to investment, and noted that elsewhere nationalisation had led to loss of service. The Department said that it was espousing the principles of change but that this could not happen overnight.
Department of Mineral Resources (DMR or Department): Strategic plan 2010/11
Mr Jacinta Rocha, Deputy Director General: Mineral Regulation, Department of Mineral Resources, tendered an apology for the Director General, who was ill. He asked Members to bear in mind that he would be presenting a draft Strategic Plan, which was as yet unapproved, since the development of the final strategic plan was work in progress, in view of the split of the former Department of Minerals and Energy into two separate departments.
He presented the Organogram, explaining that the Director General had recently been re-appointed, and remained the accounting officer for the new Department of Mineral Resources. Many other senior officials remained with the DMR. The Head of Corporate Service and the Chief Financial Officer continued to serve both Departments, and so did the Audit Committee. There would probably be further changes. The mining side of the DMR remained intact. However, there was to be an emphasis on transformation of the Department and licensing and regulation would feature more prominently in the future. Questions of rural development and the Mining Charter had been highlighted as well.
He reminded the Committee that the Mining Charter had been agreed upon by the stakeholders on 1 May 2004 and that it must be reviewed in the fifth year after it commenced, namely this year. Another focus area would be enforcement of compliance with regulations and policy, and this would involve actively working with the regulations and rules. Government was required to take on rehabilitation of mined areas, which presented challenges since DMR did not have resources to attend to the policing of this. Service delivery by DMR would need to be improved and become a focus area. All these features were inter-linked. State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) also required redefinition of their role and facilitation of their development, as well as monitoring for compliance. Health and Safety audits would be required. Further rules and regulations for the diamond trade had been developed, and were awaiting approval at a policy level.
Ms F Mushwana (ANC) interposed and stated that the Committee had previously heard these issues. She asked for key statements, with details and business plans, and an illustration of how this would impact upon the rural people, including details also of intended skills development programmes, plans for derelict mines that were presently endangering the lives and health of the poor, and details on corporate governance.
Mr Rocha explained that the balance scorecard now operated by the DMR would answer her concerns, as it was all embracing and encompassed overall objectives.
He noted that the strategic objectives were arrived at after consultation with the Minister of Mineral Development (the Minister) and were in line with the President’s State of the Nation Address. The strategic objectives relating to sustainable delivery, required not theories, but actual delivery plans for attracting local and international investment, and achieving efficiency in Health and Safety, which would involve regulations to enforce compliance. DMR would be firm in taking decisions, even if these were unpopular and caused controversy. He expressed the view that the death of one miner, at the expense of profit, was one death too many. Even if they did not involve death, there were far too many accidents at mining operations, and if necessary actions would be taken to close down the mining operations. DMR had a Constitutional imperative to cut down on loss of life, and would perform its objectives.
Mr Rocha noted that the DMR also intended to inculcate a culture of learning. The changing world required more learning and active steps would be taken. DMR had the aim that even officials at lower levels would have the competency to take decisions without referring to Headquarters.
DMR noted that financial management was also very important, and prided itself on the fact that it had received clean audits for the previous four years. It wished to maintain, if not improve upon, such levels of performance
The DMR was of the opinion that crime was associated and interlinked with poverty, and for this reason it was of prime importance not so much to focus on policing, but on socio economic development, which DMR thought should be a key programme both for itself and all of Government over the next five years. Mining policy must extend opportunities for mining to more people, and the creation of decent work within the rural areas. Mining must be licensed and lead to eco-growth with sustainability, to prevent social dislocation. At present it seemed that the interests of the communities were at variance with the interests of the mining companies, and such differences must be addressed.
With regard to legislation, he noted that this too must be changed to adapt to changing circumstances. He cited the Geoscience Bill as an example. DME also felt that the Mining Charter must be reviewed. This work would be done through the usual Parliamentary channels.
The operations of the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) had not been affected by the former department’s split. Mintek remained in Johannesburg. He conceded that the State Diamond Trader had challenges but added that it was a new entity, and would have revealed such challenges whether or not there had been a split. Geoscience was concerned with mapping minerals. The Mining Health and Safety Council was seen as of increasing importance and would be expanded and rationalised.
Mr Rocha summarised the strategic objectives as relating to mining regulations, mining policy, safety of the miners, and corporate services. He noted that the head office for mining regulations was based in Johannesburg, with at least one office in every province. Applications for mining rights were considered and awarded by the Director General. The Deputy Director General dealt with applications for mining prospecting. The Department also administered the Mining and Petroleum Resource Development Act (MPRDA) on behalf of the Minister, and therefore was the ultimate arbiter of regulations and policing. He suggested that the key components of any application for either licence were the socio economic aspect and the impact upon the communities. In this regard the provision of housing, commercial development, economic opportunities and skills development were of paramount importance. He urged Members to bear in mind that mining always took place within a society context, and the interests of the community exceeded those of the mining companies. Additional features to be taken into account related to transformation, sustainable development and the effect of the mining, which meant policing and enforcement of compliance with the regulations. He conceded that the derelict and ownerless mines were a challenge that the Department would address.
Ms Ntokoza Nzimande, Chief Director of Mining and Mineral Policy, DMR, advised that beneficiation of minerals was work in progress, that there was consultation with all the stakeholders, and that DMR was busy collating the information. The Council for Geoscience was concerned with the collation of data to register what minerals were available and where these might still be located. The appointment of the Chief Executive Officer to this organisation was still pending.
The DMR was further concentrating on attracting investment in mining. The small scale miner and the new entrants to the industry had not been overlooked. Environmental protection was another aspect, and water and the situation in the eastern and western basin of Gauteng were receiving attention. DMR was also paying attention to closing off abandoned and derelict mine shafts, which numbered over 700, of which 108 were already closed.
She added that although the Mining Charter was being reviewed, this was being done without using consultants. The DMR was busy collating the representations, with a view to completing this by the end of October 2009.
Mr Thabo Gazi, Chief Inspector of Mines, then explained that the DMR was auditing statistics and was also developing skills. DMR had 23 learners at the Goldfields Academy, 18 having completed the course already, and would be taking on more learners to train as Inspectors. Previously, the inspectors were sourced from the private sector but it was found that they would soon return to that sector, and for this reason DMR had now decided to customise the training to assist in retention. The Mine Health and Safety Act was being reviewed, and the amendments should be completed and implemented by next year.
Mr Gazi noted that another aspect of concern was illegal mining, especially the recent fires in the Welkom mines that resulted in death of 90 miners. All stakeholders were being consulted. Part of the reason for this problem was that there was 76% unemployment rate in Welkom. The gold price had risen from US$250 per ounce ten years ago to US$1001 per ounce today, so illegal mining was very attractive to the syndicates who were organising the activities.
The National Skills Development Strategy Act supported the Mining Charter, and this was allowing for the verification of skills in conjunction with the Mining Qualifications Authority (MQA), and the Department was approaching universities to ascertain why they were not promoting mining careers.
Mr Rocha noted that although the DMR had received an unqualified audit certificate for several years, he was concerned about certain aspects of the financials and the implementation of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA), particularly the independence of the audit function and the auditors, and wondered whether some assistance could be given to the Director General.
Ms Thandeka Zungu, Deputy Director General: Corporate Services, DMR, turned to the human resources aspects of the Department. She noted that a review of the human resources would be a long process including the drawing up of a plan that must be sufficiently broad to encompass a wellness programme. She reiterated that certain officials retained responsibilities in the fields of both mineral resources and energy until the full restructuring was complete. The DMR and the Department of Energy were collaborating in meeting the requirements of the Public Service Act. An analysis was being done into the needs of each post and sub-department, bearing in mind not only the theoretical needs, but also the necessity to take the human factor and change management into account. The DMR felt it was on track.
Mr Rocha added that although a new Department was being created it was utilising experienced people. The DMR was confident that it would be able to meet and address all challenges.
Mr L Moss (ANC) referred to the Social and Labour Plan tabled in the presentation. He stated that the holders of licences, whether mining or prospecting, did not care for the people and were only interested in profit. He asked how the Department intended to change this attitude. The mineral wealth of the country belonged to the people of South Africa. Mining companies were merely custodians of that wealth. He also asked what the role of the Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) were informing the Department what skills were needed, identifying the opportunities and how to access training on scarce skills and create jobs.
Adv H Schmidt (DA) referred to the disappointingly low level of beneficiation of minerals in South Africa and suggested that the DMR needed to advance implementation and advancement of beneficiation.
Adv Schmidt noted that investors seemed to be reluctant at the moment to participate in the mining industry because of the uncertainty surrounding the security of their investments and the ideas mooted around participation of a competing State Mining Corporation.
Adv Schmidt enquired whether the Mining Charter had been put to National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) for a full and proper ventilation of all the issues pertaining to it, and also whether the Chamber of Mines had been asked for input on it, or even consulted.
Adv Schmidt asked whether the Departmental rules and regulations, both those already in existence and those proposed, were legally compliant and in line with the Constitutional imperatives. He noted that the regulations must still be authorised.
Ms N Ngele (ANC) asked for an explanation about the correlation between the Mine Health and Safety issues, and the loss of skilled staff. She noted that there had been a split of the former Department of Minerals and Energy, and noted that some officials were currently doing two jobs. She wondered why people were not being appointed to fill the vacancies, and why the Department seemed not to promote from within, but instead embarked upon a long and expensive process of advertising for applicants, vetting and holding interviews, which were also expensive, when many skills were probably already within the Department. When there were internal promotions, these often took about six months, which was far too long.
Ms F Bikani (ANC) asked who would be appraising the strategic intentions of the DMR, to determine whether they were indeed relevant and in line with National requirements. She voiced her concern that the DMR seemed to be operating in such a way that the rich were becoming richer, and ownership of mines was never extended to other people. It was true that there were some wealthy black entrepreneurs but they were the exception rather than the rule. She pleaded for development of skills amongst, and the employment of the previously disadvantaged, in order to promote sustainable development.
Mr W Magagula (ANC) stated that the DMR was not in fact an entirely new entity, yet it was still speaking about transformation, when in the mines black people generally were still employed below ground and white people were either managers or owners. This meant that there had not been any transformation and that a majority sector of South Africans were still suffering. He added that many foreigners owned the mines, using local people to work for them, and asked why this was the case. HE noted that in regard to the illegal mines, there were again foreigners pocketing the wealth, yet police were in cahoots with them and would not take action against them. He asked where small-scale miners, as well as women in the mining industry, fitted into the plans of the DMR. He stated that the DMR must act in accordance with Government policy, that black people must own the mines and laws should promote this. He also expressed his concern that the presenters had not stuck to their prepared presentation.
Mr E Marais (DA) referred to page 17, setting out strategic priorities of the implementation of performance management and development systems and an integrated human resources plan. He noted that all people were likely to view change as threatening, especially if they were to be directly affected by it. He asked DMR to ensure that it treated all staff members with sympathy. If any were to be laid off, then DMR must take into account the recession, the fact that it was generally middle and lower management who might be laid off, and the need to spell out and abide by a proper policy. He was pleased to hear about commitments to training and urged extra skilling of all people. He said that the reference to the signing of service level agreements was encouraging, and noted that this encouraged efficiency and service delivery and should be extended across all departments. Noting that there was provision for two Director Generals, he asked that the vacancies should be filled as soon as possible, and that short time frames should be allocated in the interests of efficiency and economic welfare.
Mr Rocha said, in reply, that there was not one person who was not concerned with the current levels of poverty in South Africa, which was why Government was creating changes. He noted that despite the best intentions, it was difficult to persuade mining companies to buy in to the changed approach, which was why there was now to be stricter enforcement of compliance. DMR was determined to meet the challenges. He conceded that there was poverty in many areas, that many of these tended to be rural areas, and that although the mines in these areas would report a profit, the wealth was not moving down to the communities but was instead going outside South Africa, which must stop. He said that Members would be seeing a change, since the DMR was insisting, in future, on inclusion of social and labour plans in all applications for mining and prospecting licences.
With regard to skills development and Mine Health and Safety issues, Mr Rocha conceded that his presentation had been quite generalized. He reiterated that any new and future applications for licences would have to take account of these issues and put them in the advanced business plans. The two issues would be regarded as linked. Skills were currently handled by the MQA but the Department worked closely with the Department of Labour. He assured Members that the focus had changed.
With regard to beneficiation he advised that the approach of the DMR was not that which had prevailed in the Diamond Trade until recently. There were new challenges and discussions were under way with National Treasury on a new approach, which soon would be announced.
Mr Rocha said that State participation in the mining industry was a long and established practice, giving the examples of Alexkor, Foskor and the Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). The former two were examples of hands-on participation through SOEs. The IDC was the State financing mechanism and had been involved for a long time. However, the change concerned the reducing of the SOEs’ autonomy, and calling upon them to account, to operate in terms of revised Government policy, namely that the wealth of South Africa should stay in the country and be used to benefit its people especially previously disadvantaged individuals. With regard to the accompanying question of disposal of State assets, he noted that a moratorium upon the disposal of State assets had been imposed by Cabinet, and that before disposal there must be an audit of what each Department held, the state of such items, and the needs of the Department or of another department, to try to enforce the austerity programme. Once those audits were completed, a comprehensive plan could be drawn.
The National Petroleum Resources Development Act was now passed and preparations were being made for it to be promulgated.
Mr Rocha addressed the questions around the review of the Mining Charter. There was engagement with all stakeholders and ongoing discussions in terms of the advisory panel, which would in due course lead to convergence. He cautioned that sometimes stakeholders whose points of view were not accepted would claim not to have been consulted, in an attempt to reopen the debates or attract publicity to their views.
Mr Rocha noted that the split of the former Department was announced on 9 May, and would become effective from 31 July. This was a Government decision, and the DMR was bound to accept it. In regard to human resource issues, he noted that the conditions and principles of the Public Service Act prevailed, and that promotions and transfers had to be done in accordance with this Act. The processes must be seen to be above reproach. There was no room for favoritism, which was the reason that every post must be advertised. He noted that often a candidate would be offered a position but would elect not to take it, so that the whole process might have to begin again. He noted that although it might be desirable to do more restructuring, the government policy was quite constricting. A single accounting officer would remain in place until the end of the 2010 financial year, and this would pose a challenge.
Mr Rocha noted that Government did indeed intend to transform the mining industry. This was part of the challenge for DMR. There were pockets of excellence, and pockets of resistance. He commented that a high profile black manager or owner would often be termed as a “magnate”, although less favourable terms would be applied to high profile white managers or owners. He assured the members that there were black mining companies. However, there were also fronted companies, and he said that action should be taken against those black people allowing themselves to be used as fronts. He assured Members that the DMR would continue to push for transformation towards a non-sexist, non-racial and non-discriminatory South Africa, and although it may not have met the requirements in the past, the DMR would also be striving strongly to implementation of employment equity, citing the recent figures given by the Minister of Labour that black people, who constituted about 76% of the population, only occupied about 12% of senior managerial and director positions, whilst whites and other minorities, representing 9% of the population, occupied about 75% of these positions, many through ownership. Transformation was both a necessary and long process.
Mr Rocha noted that there were historical reasons for the appearance of foreigners in the local mining industry, but such people were generally in the lower ranks of the industry and changing their employment would require a change in Government policy. However, foreign ownership through investment in mining companies, and the repatriation of the profits back to foreign countries, was of concern, as well as non-adherence by such companies to South African legislation.
In relation to sustainable development, he noted that the supply chain mechanism was to be used to ensure the sustainability of small scale mining and the position and existence of small scale mines was constantly being reviewed.
The Chairperson then stated that DMR should, as a priority, utilise the SOEs for rural development. He reiterated that the Mining Charter was Government policy, in line with the Freedom Charter, and was non negotiable, especially with regard to mining hazards, diseases and dangers. He asked how the lack of proper monitoring and enforcement provisions could be justified in view of the loss of life among miners. He also noted his concern that deaths were reported, but injuries and loss of limbs were not. The current high toll of injuries and deaths could not be allowed to continue. There must be stricter monitoring and enforcement. Health and safety issues could not be separated from each other. He was concerned that often mining companies created communities, yet did nothing to provide basic and primary health care for them. The same applied to the lack of encouragement for promoting development of skills through education. He asked why the MQA and Department of Labour were controlling adjudication of skills. He noted that if there was not voluntary acceptance of the welfare of the people, then there should be compulsion upon them to act. In regard to illegal mining, he pointed out that the miners paid with their life or health, while the mine bosses were laundering the profits. He asked why mining shafts were being left open.
The Chairperson noted that the SOEs existed already, and he wondered why the whole mining industry could not be nationalised, since there was a shortage and scarcity of resources. This country was now fifteen years into democracy and still there had not been sufficient changes so that the people benefited. Plans and scenarios were put forward by departments but there was little delivery. He was not surprised by the levels of crime, for if people had nothing they would tend to resort to this. There was not wealth creation. He wondered why Brazil and Venezuela could nationalise and expropriate resources, but South Africa seemed to have a problem in doing so. Government was the custodian of wealth that should be for the benefit of all, not for shareholders in New York or London. He referred to the current strikes and unrest and noted that people were politically conscious, and would not hesitate to act to overthrow a regime if they did not get what was due to them. Transformation must happen now, and reflect the demographics of the country, with meaningful participation in wealth. The job reservation that applied now must be turned into job creation. Consequences should follow if there was no compliance with the Mining Charter. The very same companies who pleaded that matters should proceed slowly in South Africa for fear of upsetting shareholders and investors were investing in places like Zimbabwe and Angola, which posed far more risk. Overseas investors were prepared to put money into China, with its limited human rights culture, rather than South Africa, where there were human rights but the possibility of nationalisation.
Mr Rocha said that the Council for Geoscience was busy identifying opportunities for small-scale mining. With regard to derelict mines, the asbestos mines were receiving priority and especially their slime dams, in order to establish whether they were affecting the health of the people around them. He said that there were over 6 000 abandoned and derelict mines. He found it difficult to understand how a company could extract every bit of wealth from the mine, and then simply walk away from it, claiming that the now useless mine was no longer its responsibility. DMR was researching the availability of technological aids for establishing the sites of these derelict mines. Presently, officials would have to travel long distances to the abandoned and derelict mines, make notes and then compile a report back at their offices, so that some information may well be left out. National Treasury regulations provided a further complication as the DMR was obliged to justify the traveling which was regarded as “non essential”.
Mr Rocha agreed that health education and skills development went hand in hand and could not be isolated and the DMR was working in this field. There has been a recent success in KwaZulu Natal and the model was being investigated to ascertain the viability of applying it elsewhere. DMR was determined to become a place of learning and scholarship.
Mr Rocha conceded that Alexkor had previously been an SOE but that its autonomy was now being curbed. State Owned mining companies would be expanded and would play an increasingly important role in South African mining operations. However, DMR could not achieve everything within a short space of time and was aiming for long term transformation.
Mr Rocha made the point that illegal mining involved syndicates who undertook criminal activity and theft, while their “foot soldiers” were actually doing the mining and suffering the consequences. These and must be differentiated from mining companies that perhaps did not have the correct licences or permission. The South African Police Service (SAPS) was helping DMR to eradicate illegal activities at Welkom and Barberton. Mining companies were to ensure security. Their directors could be held personally liable for failure to do so.
Mr Gazi explained that the Department of Labour monitored skills development, and that was the reason why the MQA fell under its jurisdiction. Funds for development of skills and training were sourced from the Skills Development Levy and he explained that each enterprise was required to contribute 1% of its wage bill to South African Revenue Services, which would then be paid to the Department of Labour to transfer to the appropriate Sector Education and Training Authority. The DMR had ensured, together with the University of Fort Hare, that a Department of Geology was now established at Fort Hare. Black students, however, had still to be persuaded of the benefits of studying geology, and there was publicity being given through workshops.
Mr Schmidt cautioned that the statements regarding nationalisation of the mines and SOEs would be detrimental to the country’s interests, as money was needed for investment. He pointed out that the Richtersveld community had already been granted a portion of the benefits from the Alexkor mining operations. SAA, SABC, Transnet, Eskom and the ports had all been nationalised and were not successful. Not only was there great dissatisfaction with the level of service, but many were effectively or nearly insolvent. Companies were investing in Angola because there was no threat of nationalisation of mines. This must be distinguished from references to other countries. He submitted that wherever a State became too involved in commercial activities it was likely that the level of service would dramatically decline, leading to collapse, and cited what had happened in the former USSR as an example.
Mr Marais addressed the question of transformation, noting that after fifteen years the DMR’s delegation was preponderantly male, had no white women and no coloureds or Indians of either sex.
Mr Marais asked whether the Departmental officials had declared their private interests, and whether these were close to mining activities. He added that his party also believed in creating and sharing wealth, but that this should not be confined to a small group, but be done equitably.
Mr Magagula expressed his appreciation for the presentation.
The Chairperson summed up by stating that politicians were ideologues whose ideologies must be espoused. Alexkor and other SOEs had, as a matter of principle, excluded non-whites, and it was therefore quite acceptable now to exclude whites. South Africa was a developmental state and must be developed to suit its people. Overseas investors were free to invest, but must accept the position if they did not make the expected gains. If necessary, he suggested that South African mines could be closed down until South Africans alone could develop them with local finance, or with the help of investors who were prepared to accept South African conditions. He noted that Eskom was a prime example. It was now supplying electricity to people who had never received it before, and that those who could afford to pay were effectively subsidising those who could not. He added that threats and intimidation had not dissuaded investors from investing in Zimbabwe and Angola and were unlikely to feel dissuaded from investing in South Africa. South Africans and the world should share the benefits of what each could contribute. There must be equal access to wealth.
The meeting was adjourned.
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